(1) Pdo pDd ClG jz UDd dp CdC cpz
l p 1284 Dv ok ColqD lFDC q jz DA C PA dp lqp EDV A
Fp ok Dv orF lOW qC lFDC q jz DA dp .kD Ow p F
DOvl CpC Cp z qCoDwF V p PDþ D ϵok.kF Ϸ
Dþ qC ص DF Dϵ qC .lO G G Co C lkp lN C qC pN
z C Vok Dϵ qC kh Dq ok PzCk om lqp oDZ .kF Pvk oD
.kF ClG jz UDd dp pOZ qC lkF
lءCkolJkrCopz ϵ ,NDl MeN N qC xJ ClG jz UDd EDV
CoMeNNllCok PzCk oDzpv y vC F Pp Cp CkDOvCpk kh
(2).k kDOVC qDVCHwolJ qC lvo kDOVC Vok F DvPwF kldok kpN
,Dϵ Dv kDFDle Dv UDd EDV dp p 1305 Dvok
Է Fpok,kp PVCp Clh Dh pv qC ,C Pط wv P H
ClG jz EDVF ,kF C Pطwv Cpþ qC oD pGC ϵ UDd
.PvC lA pz lF C OwC WOwV ok N A :kp oDC kF Fp Dv
PGe PD MD Dϵ Dv dp qC DzolJ A DF pDd DA dp
kh orF CokCpF DF llwK kh F ,kF kCk Clqp F MD oOvk kp
,lkF lA lkqDF CpF DC .Pp ,lkF Oo DC MD F
ClV DCqC qo v lz EnW kFo Owi oClk D ok ClG jz EDV
kld okkF C CV CC ok A A DF .lkp koC v Pp ok DN l
hqC ,x Dd ok Pzn F CC k Ե qC .PzCk Dv 21
: Dp FD C ,kp ܡN P Co ,DF
(3) N lءCk PhDܡ Co ġ N lJ qC lF lzpN Piv
,kp Ppd DWA qC Dϵ Dv EDV Z PzCl DOC Cpk P F ԤC
p pdMoDq F Gz PD MlzClz zD A ok z FnV ġ oz
kDFD v F o oC W CC ԬC lF DWA qC lz p ClClv Mpd
Dϵoϵ UDd DF Nl r Ppd qC G .kD Dϵ Dv EDV ݬ
CpF Dv lZpv pw ok DC A Dϵ Dv EDV lzoC lqp kDFD
lZ kCk Pvk MD DNC ,kF lvo Fp F Co WOwV k ok eN
DGD r DWAok .kp PVCpxKv lD kDFD ok D P pv A .lkF DF
kDFD F pk pv lZ .lzx HNpNPDo ok PzCk PGe z PDd
,m cpz F Dp Dϵ DvEDV pqC p 1311 Dv ok A DN lA
.lkp H "ϵ Pdo"H F OD DGD pOvk kDzoC qDVC
ϷC pGC wC pGiC ϷC leC .DVo OR F .dpC dpC C wF
oC MDh l衾 Ep D oߺ D DClF G Ծ lF nCpGC
rC vpC voC DN oDGN l ol w h olC C MD
MDCrC MCϥC F ݵ F ݵ d e GwC fC HOC
O DC HNCp V ϵ DrC phA Q߷GC le ϵ MDDOC MDDC
lzCpC Dh ߥC DC ϵ DWC xC E HnN DkC CpC
oDC SDC ND OC DC CpC pC DClv ϵ Dߥh
OF wOC W GOC DF pOC DC ϵ vDC
. ODC eF oDC
C F v D DC Щ Pvk CpOC MkDv Dq rV C ok Z lF
k CoCpvC re Co ϷDv F H le old F le Dv D D F
Hwd F ,OhDv O kDG kDzoC lw pF C Pط ߨo ϵ ϵ p ok
DF Dw MDA F GF Co pþ DV p q ߩNp ECkA ߿ DdC
PvC oCnC HV ÿN P ,C HD A qC oDVrC lzDF DCk Ddo Dh F
ok CpF EDwOC vl ED vl EDV D Cn .D h PCl F oD FD C ok
Cz pz P C ok OD OvCoA DC C F Co ClG jz DA pOe
UoD UoD kCk PCl qDVC mC k ϵ Pdo F H PvC pW 1311 pC
loCk kh d pF l Co d pC Dd p ok lC k kDzoC CpC qCrC D
Dk qC loA Co F x lCk Dz DN d Plh ,Co d DlF Plh
Pvk PԨ kC DO P q DܡN lC ,loDz pOF MphA
CpO pF EDV A vC F Co kh ,lCk 취 C DFq Pvk Co EDV A DFq
lC GNC ϵ wC ClC uDGOC C DGNC D D ,llF P
.kpC C HOVC
MDGO F DOwq D z kDFD ok DOwFDN D z HNp Dv lZ lF F A qC
CpN ok oCorF pJ qDVC Cpþ Ch F DF p 1322 Dv ok kp PVCp
DC h Dz ϵ o EDV Plh Dϵ Dv EDV MkDz qC xJ .lr PDC
MDCAok .lkp H "Dϵ Pdo" F PD kDzoC qDVC CklW ,kp l llWN
OwCk hpF lA J Dϵ o EDVDV ko ok Cpþ F NDOhC
qCpz olC HD UDd Od DZ . lkp lF DC EDV qC OwCkD D
NkCoC ,Mpd A MkDz qC xJ PzCk Dϵ Dv Mpd F DN G MkCoC
khD P ok S kF lz llN Od DF r DC DDV F PGw
DN Ml ok DC A ok
( 4),kF kp N Cܵ F Co Dϵ fD Mpd
cl DF CN Dd cpz pm qC xJ DeC Cp EDO ok Od lz lkpN z oDZk
F , pDd ClG jz UDd C UCpv dp qC Dϵ Dv DA dp WN
Co C UCpv D F kp oDwF pN , DC iO ClNkCoC Cܵ
(5).PvC OwCk Dϵ Dv DA DV
C Ե ġ HGv F C pF DD k PCpv ol r pDd EDV F DD C
DN Ml lz HV DC ,PzCk Dϵ Dv EDV kh lzp F
h kh P ok Z .l l llWNkpF pv F CrC Dd ok lr Mh
zo pF Co pC Pd PvCh Clh qC kpDV DkC kh Da PzCk
qDVC pF lkpl llWN Dϵo DA dp DF lz Gz o kq F Cn
(6) ,l
:lCkpv l llWN qC xJ r Co m MDVD .lzpNrCDz Ե llD DF kh

C F D lF

Clh C ,Clh C ,Clh C

CpF qC Pvp Co POdo

DJ OwF pF oDC x

A N v F CN DN

D CpN k DN

DGz P F kF yD

Ck O l v DN

DDV N pF kp

CpF qC FDO N

kD kCk DGC x

kCv kG rp yD

kCp DF D

kDF pG C PvC kCv r

Ckq pF k q Dv DN

pGC HWd DCk HW

pv pF kF l

pw V C kF DJ

pNlF k p qC Ow Ow

Do lzp A Pvk

wJC Oo CoD

w F Dw F x C

wh oDh a C ok

vo lD Z DF

DF p kh F lDFo DN

lA N qC P lV

lA N qC Mol d

lA N qC PFDVC Z

lA N qC MkDv

Dk DF N Clh C

kCk N kJ oDN Ozo

kCk N kV kG

kCk N kF oClJ Z

kCk N kWv o

Do DF oClJ q

oߵ Dp oCq lF

o q pO ok

o F oD q D DN

o߿ C PCk pF Pvk

Cl ܺ N ܺ N

C k Dd q N

DZ F kDO v

C C C D

Dz F OwJ q Dvo

DpC pv p C
ok DvDO kF Pq ok r DC ,DzD F Dϵ o EDV phA pv ok
w DzD ok EDV A Z koA Cp FCo oCorF pJ lwV D p DF PVCp
DA dp DC C ok .PD MD p 1337 C Fo 15ok rpok l kp
.lkF jDC l Dϵ Pdo
pF Dϵ fD EDV DC DV p qC Dϵ o EDV Pdo Pw qC xJ
lqD rW Dd pF qo F qo PD iDC jz Pv kF DF H D
.lz krC
pF lkp OGDph Piv D PDw F GNp lZ phC Dv lZ ok FDV
A DN kp PDܵ Dz lClh lz o p Ddo DOvk Cpþ vN Dk pRC
qC xJ lz OG MDOvpJ GC xGd p F lzoh 1316 Dv DOwFDN ok
MDDNMlz DF kF pOwF DOvoDF ok D P Hp r oklFChD
DF Co DlMkD kF p wN kp pG F oDC D b DwV
lzpphAoClk pOkp CpnJ Pdp PD qDF yߺA kD pZ
PN DC MkD l F kDFDqC Dϵ fD DA EDV A DN kF kh EGe
Mol MDdq qC Owh Dk qC Oorq phC qo lZ ok .llA CpN F oC F
lz DA OwF pF Pho kp YqC lz Co D l DV D .k Dk D
.kF ClhJ lvo G oDzC pO
PzCn Oiv Fo Dd Pp oCp dCpV ص ko PDw Mlz pRC pF Ck qC G qo
F DFq kF kh EGe DF qCl qv qD qCo ߻ DGNp kF phA Hz lF Hz
oDC Co kh wN ,kp oDzC pv DF r wJC k ok .kF pO"ϵ D" " D"
DdDF kG k DV qC Co EGe Mߵk ,OzCnv F Ek Co Pvk xKv ,k
.PDOz lDV D F1316lܿvC12FDp1356Dv Wem28ok ܷ yh oDwF
dp pG ok o pz rd kCrDC eok N WN PD DF DC qDV
( 7).lz ߾l DϵoEDV pG oDok Dϵ MkDv DA
PCl Co oDwF DGD hC l D DF ܷ kDzoC Dv45 ok EDV A
Co EDV A x p DwC rNDvC ة F k PFpN pþ ok CoDorF kp
FoD DqC o C qC .PD C ok Co h wd PCo Pdo Pd PhDz
phCC ok Od lqo MkDwd DC F PGw wDN DOdC .lkoCn CpOdC
DqCo S h oDRA ok kF r C ϷvDG jz UDd ,kp oD oDC
iz ","DeC Ϸ jz "S Dܵ PeN D ܷ DF oCOvC iv F
DF phC DPDiϵ qC ߤC kpF vC DC qC ,"PzClkDOC b
(8).kF pOF VN ko pDd DA dp kF CPطwv DorF
.kp oDOo P CoCl F DF oCorF D DF pDd DA dp CdC C DF
S r C kr CkpDz Od kF DWFD pءZ ld F oDOo v C
pzD kpDz DMl .lkp kD Pn F A qC r v C dp
DF PGdD DC ok h MCpDh qC ب ok ,kF r C DkrqC
ykr lk Co pDd ClG jz UDd dp oDF Ml C ok)):l ,
ok Z .kF C pDh PDOvC pF G Dϵ fD ,dp HDV qC DJ Dd lA
D Dz HvD kpkpv kohpF C DF ϷvDG UDd ,dp A ko ClOFC
ODi DF :kp p lz DV Co Pϵ DC Oo qC xJ ,kG pDd
ߥiF pDdDA DOVC ϵ D loCk qCpFC DkDFD F PGw Dz
kp jvDJ ok .lDpoDOo DC DF yh qp F kp EDWC Dz Dh F yko
Z kF ط xW qCpzDA UDd . PvC qCpz DA UDd kpoߥN C "
ll Co C Z kF ط xW z DeqC DA Ck kF ll Co C
? D lCOzCk DF OFD p k C Dz z De qC DA Ck kF
kp Mpd C ,kp Co HϮ C lvo rok pDd dp Plh O DC
DDv NoߤoklzDF kp DGOzC qCpz DA UDdDF Cp PvC Z:kp
(9) ((.C OzCkpFD Co ok DF kF pzD HdD pl DF qCok
dp) :l DC Dp ϵ D qC WN Dk D ok v CxKv
DoC qC o CpCokkF D p ok ߤ jD DorF qC pDd ClG jz
voD oDzC , PzCk ߤC þ MDFkC ok wN pF Ե. Po oDz F ߥN
Pp oCp Oko ߨ pO ,kF kp pF qC kDq Co ߤ oDO ߥiF
(10) ((.kF DFp h kp C DF.lCi PGvD F r MDFC kClNC
oD pF oDzpv y OzCk DF r pD ϵ Td qC pDd ClG jz UDd dp
pF ,kFoCkohpF r FkC m epqC Z kF w ߤC þ ߥh F vC
(11). D VqCDp EDOlZ .PzCkD wNDpoDRApF MDFkC
(12) , pDwCkCq pOwGz ke jz qC DeCr Dvo
DoDD lDF feNoDF CCpF Co DV
(13),oCpFC eGv p wdp
(14) .kp ppeN ppN Oi DPGvD F r Dp fC .kp IDZ
p CpF o߬ F kF kpKvpDh F PF oCr lZ ,PzCk GW 鲾DdDF
ԩ . P pz pO PzCk pz G r khkoA lDz OF HϮ
Hw lkp nN Olhok pCqp DrC lF kDOvC S oDwF lNDvC
:l kD ZDC qC kh fe D l okpCqp dp ,lk
F yC OvJ pDd ClG jz UDd Pd D PCp l A D ok ))
p DV .lǾC lDV Cpv F Pho 1316 Dv phCC ok , koA oD ok ߡN kl
(15) ((.kDF pN p Eo D ;PvC Pdo
dp .kF DFq pz G gz oDwF PDO ok Pd D PCp l A
F jvDJ ok ClG jz UDdDA dp PDw ok l kCoDzpOk DA
:kp Z,kF DC pDzh C D pOk DA zrJ MCv
d D DF lpF ok o qC cԮC F A F DC ?loh p Dz :lvpJ
o߲)loCk l Dz :kp Cv CklW . p , :lkp kh NCm PDO
.lzDF r ok k lDz : lkp Ϥd D DF DC qDF .(kF PFDk oDF
DC . hzDz DF :kpƧp ,lz DG C D pOk DVCok
(16) .O lV D :lkp
uCvld ok Pk DF MDkD F VN F kF Np CO oDwF pDd DA dp
r D þDNpRDN߾ qClF .kplq G DܻOvC DF
(17) D oC ko ok
(18) .lkF lphDClNkCoC Ch MlDw F Co A kF pF olC
lzDF o DzDo DF DC MD qC DOvCk oCorF A wd P C ko ok
(19).PvC lz Oi p F
(20) DzDo pDd ClG jz UDd MD
(oC weClG)
.kߡEDpz Dz oߩd F p P MD kG qoDzDo Pܮv CC ok
PDv ok phDN lF qo p"DGNp Dv XJ Ml ok MD C DCkClN
p qo p .kDq lz lkF Dz oߩdok Nl lkp ФDd FDpz
pp P C qC p pC .lO pNCo Dz pe DNC F p P
pOwFqC PDw Dd DDFkߡ Dz iN MDC TDF FDpz l C CpF ,lz
.kz Dz ߥiDNCkoC DN lz pDdOܮv gDok op PDvpv PvDhpF
PDv Ml F xKv PhCkpJ oDD p F p kqCk PDv DzDo
DzDo oߩd F FDpz P qo p pqClF PDv .kp PdCpOvC
CpF DFDpz C OGC llz EDpz V Pvk o߬ F p P pkF
ok Dv XJ Ml C ok FDpz pO ok o߬ F kG O Dw cp
DFDpz C . lA ص F TeF O oC pk vDv Dw CpC
o߲ FlzDF Oo MpDw F DzDo C p lz 쮷N qo b CO
F ioDN DFDpz qC"Dب Pp Moߤ kF Dz iz Ե ko Dh
,Dz ߥi HG ϵCpC pOk : qClkF MoDG Dlz EDpz Po EDwd
ϵ C PzpC, ߥi pOk xo C z , ( PooCkpv ) l pǡpv
v ܮwCHkC , Cl D pC , DhoDClh pǡpv ,(MDD FDv pC)
.D C loD
X oDzC lCh ioDN MDDd O , HNp DFDpz C qC o߲
Dv XJ CO DFDpz qC b ok p P D qC b .kF CJ
OܮvgD qC UoDhok Co oDD kF kF kp p DzDo oߩdok Co oDD
PDv uCo ok Pvok k p DDzA DOvk r D kh r ok
lǡCkpFo KvDFDhok DCAok Dz p .zDF pDd Oܮv gDok pqClF
PvokFDpz Ml. PzCk oCp (okD ) J MpdDϵ Ϸ gD pwC
DDpF CpVC CpF Dz Dqo qCF ok Cp lDWC߬ F PDvoDZ
pqClFzPDvP qCG Co xCxWC De qClkqD Dh
Oܮv gD Dv z ok PDvoDZMl C DN ok D .lD쮷N PvC kF
l Oܮv gD Dv ok"DGNp Pwr Dz Z ; kF kDOwC Ddok
oDZ PDv pv Pvokl ߬ F pqClFFooDZ PDv DN kq l C kq
PliJ Pw G o DzDo ,lvo Cp DZ lz P pqClF
PD ok MDwV C .kCk Dz Pvk F Co DZ DOvC lz Dv koC ߥi
Dz lkp cp kDOC DJ J Dw o߬ Flz ǡN HNpN ٲ
þ Co DZ .k cCr DhoDClh pǡpv DF Od kp hz w DF"ClFC
EA DZ .kF PDv ok DZ lz Dz DpFZ lz Dz iz
lvo Cp EA lz P pqClF oDZ PDv .lz PDv ok Co
kq l F qDF PvDhpF EA CpV lz qC xJ Pw G o ok Dz
lz F P Cok Pw"CklW lF PDv Fo PhCkpJ Dv ok
EDpz C e D qC DzDo v F oDv kp kkOGC .PhCkpJ DZ
k CpDd v F Co kh o lkq oDv F J p PzCk CkC lz
qo Od .lkCk CkC kq l F Ohk gD Dv DF Co D١Z"CklW
r qo p PzCk N F D uDG qop .lz Dv koCDp uDG DF Dz
kG ok DzDo pv qC PDv oDZ Ml C DNok PzCn pv ok
kh DJ pv p DOvkDF C qC xJkp pv qC OzCkpF F ClC D
ClCq D uDG F DzDo Ե .PzCn pvokCo "CklWkȡh Co
h kV DF kF lkp xG vuDG FoDF þ Pܮv ߬ok kF
qo DNlA zh v uDG qC kF lqCpF Dz ClC CpF DpuDG
pN xo prV F DOC CpC Dh qC Pr CpF uDGolF v F Co Dp
N F v uDG Dz Do qo A OGCkF kp N ok v uDG V b Fk
DطOvC DV F PvCh Dz kF J DطOvC XpN CpF o߲kF k
ok J r Dz loCnF pv ok J oCk G kp ص pW OvJ
F Dlz EDpz p P .lzJlv oCzkp N ok C pv P PzCnpv
pN HDVlOwCN oDzC lCh MDDd cpz pF Ե DzDo oߩd
cpz ok DzDo .lD DOvC Dz iz DFq qC Co DzDo qDFpv Dq MCpDh
DzDo .kCk cpz Co kh lq D MDrV F kFkDOvC kh lq CdC
Pw Dk 1343 DDv ok DZkoA DFq F NDDdkh k Cok qC Od
Dz iz DFq qC kF DzDo oChpz Cok F Fp Co MCpDh A qC D
qC G D Dv qC ZkCk cpzD CpF D zDo DFDpz qC ok . kF k Uok
Mǡ qC Od DzDo .lvpF CpC Pܮv F kF Op إN 1299 Md DNk
lq CpVD cpz .kp DPDd DOiv eN DoDqDvD kh lq
OwA kq l Dv CpC Dd ok .PzCk lz"DC DzDo CJ
cpz Dlz EDpz D OGC .PhCkpJ kh lq MCpDh cpz F OwA
MDDd lzqC oD Dz Do lz C kh DFq qC Co DzDo lq
P"DGNpkpF Mnvkp DDzoDzC lz qC DzDo .kF lzCJ
oDzClCh FlFCl DF PvC kF loDDFoDzC lCh OGCkz oCpN
ko e F ,lvo DzDo oߩd F kDqo qC .OhCkpJ DDz
:lkpCv l lF lA FD PvCo Dz ,Oܮv gD Dv F
?PwZDܻOvCܷ lClFDN kF OhkDk F ١ZDz ?lk ܷ ZDܻOvC
.oADFqF fC o߬ F Fh F Co DܻOvC ܷ DN lkoCpNoDF lZ Dz
oDFokq MDeN kCk cpz Dz CpFCoDܻOvC ܷ kF DWA DN OGC
,kpF JDܻOvC ܷ F lz Co MDeN C DzO .lDvo p FDܻOvC
oCk khlq qC ODd:lkp xKv . PvC kF CDܻOvC ܷ xJ HW:kp
F DN DN OwF Co PDd CqC lF ClF CoDܻOvC ܷ C kF q
Dv ok kp Mv k XJ kld ok DzDo .lF cpz Dz CpFkoCk lq
Ddok kDOC Co FxKvkp pz Co PDd cpzkDOwC lF PhCkpJ kq l F
.PhCkpJ PDd cpz CkC F kq l
CoC pz ok Nl DzDo OwCk qo A DN F p P F lDF C
kF DzDo DFq qC ioDN oDwF PDd cpz lz بqo A .PzCk PDC
Dv F p A CoC ok Co khpص qC Nl qDFpvDq ok Dz OwCk
:kF kp iv qDA o߬ C DzDo .PhDvpKvkF Cp kDFA
Dv PoD ekF qo lZ kF D Vok lF kDv qDFpv
PhCkpJ d r D phA kF DN P Dok d.kF lz N CpkDFA
"Dߥi Pp MoߤOiv F CqDFpv pDv lq PV Flz
DpJ oDwFlq pDv pz C Ckpv Pϵ F DOwq Х ok CoCok
OwCN Odkp Co lq ߾DN qDFpv d CpF Ե OzCk
Coklq DC pNlF CoCok lq . pCokh DOwqkpv DHzok
Cqo D qC Z D pNCo CoC pz Dv kp oߥN b .kF qDFpv
F lC b ld FkpClJ r lq Mǡ lz oDF CoC Fko
OzClyrA CoC kp DF . qDwF qwFlDF kp pǾ OzCl lq
CqDFpvDF yrA .lOzCl MpzD ZC kDvqDFpv DF r CoC kp"DG
.lkFlz qDFpv PlhkoC rZD HVC pVDF HϬCk o߬ F lD kF
pǾkhlA F"ԤCD C pFDF .kF lD r DA CdC Dd DA lq
kFDvp PD A ;kF CdC Dd D pm pǾ DN F kp
.PvC OzCk PD CoD CqDFpv D rV w pO PvC
kDOC pǾ C F"G C lF DNC HwdpF OzCk PDC CoCok Dqo qC ok
D ok OGC .k MD Co pz C D qC ,zDFOp إN
ok Co C C kF lz Co C vC "G Z kF lz Co C vC CkohpF
Nl lءCk oD CDF MD .kF lk Z DFDhоDe xDW
DNC ok OGC kF Oo MD F qDFpv uol uDG DDF .l ߬ F
lz DNC koC p Z o Ck .lkF Ow CoC DCqC ODV
F pzlD aD okh Pvk лFlCh kh v FCp kDOC F ١Z
DءZ ok xKvlkp DV pOi o߬ F Ozn Dd lqqCkpvpJ CdC
![.lz Ch P C olO DvN]: P l lF lz ph
qDFpvDF OzCn pv Fpv cCrl l hz C k oߥN.kp HWN h
F C kp oDF kp oߥN C kp Mv.koCkCo Z oCl rZ F kDv
olO DvN qo OwCk kp VN pd F DA:lvpJ qC PV
DNpd D pǾ oDF"ԤC :O ECVok ?z P C
V b F :P ECVok ?loCk GD hzl lOWDϵqC hpFlD
.zDF cCr C
ߡ H HdDqolOCpZlOwCk Z Co Pzpv Z xJ: lvpJ
.kp UoDhoDF P lq CqC z
;oCpNpkoDFlzDF CN PdDF Z p :Pk zo D
[!lz Ch P C olO DvNqo]
ϤDF,kCok Cp OzCn pv Fpvll hz"DC DA ClF C CpF
vpF CpC Pܮv F qo"DCklKF Pd Fl Dz aA pC :lvpJ
Ow PiN F pD lDzlzDF lq Dz ߡF P C ϮoClDq
oCnF oCp DF C qC DN PzCk lCh N Z qC Aok ,lߡF
?D صkh F
Dz qC Co Clh h F PGePÿz þ Ch b: PzCk oDC ECV ok
.k pNCo pe OvDhpFkoA DFq F Co V C .Ch
kF k PDokqC FCV C CpF?O pN Co Dh ϤDFCpZlCk
.kF kp qDF vFColC aokkF kCk oClCoC .kFlC o p F
Z lvo Pܮv FO P z CpC olO Dv N qokF O
.PvCh Clh h CpF Pÿz PGe þ F lF Moߤ F lDF oD
DD o߬ F kCk lC CoZCkppv p uDqDFpv kF ECV
v F CN DN rpJ Dpd uD qC kp إCpkkq qC Co Dغ DN
.oCkpF l lA
PeN CqDFpv lDp PeN 1299 Md v qo F DN Dv krDJ Pvokqo A
kpvqoA .kFDF Op Pvk FCo Mol lzPiODJ koCr qCkhoDOhC
.kFwz 1284 Md vClGi
CDF k MD k MD DF oDF k CpF lF Dv k Pvok
.kF DDp qD o pz qC .kF Op Moߤ ( 첷ClG Mpd) o pzok
kh lA F kG C kDv qDFpv pkkF kpClJ pN F lq OGC
A rZD d PDok UpF DDJ pǾ okDCkD zDF uD oDZk ١l
F DC A pz C eok o pzok .D oDz k lz PhCkpJ
CoC Dv G Dv k DF kDNo߬ F DD kF C Fpi G Moߤ
.kp vpJ CdC F pzk v Pp oCp FD C kh. kpkohpF kF
C O Cp kDFA Dv ok Dz F Co aA]:P C e F OhDܡ Co CC
b kF DzoClk DO :O C F . kpF C P F J [. PvC lz kr O
CdC DdqC .z D Dz Z O yhkp oClk F pkoDF kp oߥN
DGpF liG k oD pv Fkp HwNDԬC lq
:O C F lD Pr AC C qC G k DdClh l xKv PwF
lCh N Z qC vpF CpC Pܮv F lA ok Pvok Dz pd qo pC"DC
Ch b] :P k oCpNCo CoC G Dv k V D ECV ok ?PzCk
omA ok C DN ll pk Co [.Ch Dz qC Co Clh h F PGe Pÿz þ
Pܮv F Dwv xW p qC qo Ckp lvo CpC Pܮv F 1304
pDh F Z p kF kp yCpCo C vC D MDCo Op إN lvo
kF p l ok C D OGC .oDF pDh F Co C vC OwCO kp Vokh
OwCk .PzCkpvoklv Dص De lFkG MCkDvrVkF jzOwCk
PDC CoC ok G Dv PwF OwCk .PzCl Dk D F CԵkFok
pw GNpN p F kCk lC oOvk C F kCk kh CkVA F Co DD C . PzCk
kz OhCkpJ eN WOwV F o߬ lDF kCk pnN"Dߥi l ClJ Co lzDF
DWCpv PD CkC O WOwV .kߡ Cp C PF C OdCoD EDGvC
DDN qC .koCk PDC CpN ok PvC Nl lz Ϸ .lA Pvk F r uokA
hCk Co MD e kp NCo V fG P PDv .k MD P
.pF MD F uDzD o߬ F Op إN .Pp p ok 첷ClG Mpd pd
Oo ߤ C MD F kF ODv D lq MDDv pN yh
kF Vqo .lzDF qC oClk oDOCokkF ϷkF Ow pd z ok .kF
Fߡ OhDzkF C v DN .kq U PV 첷ClG Mpd pdok
k oDN PvDhpFlkCpO .Oo MD F lG uDG DF PV
pm k C DMD qC Vb F .Ow pd zDok C Pvk лF
p :O C F ;P pGN FCo Pܮv OdkoD D F OGe kp
Dz MD F PV F zDF kDA pDd A DWC CpFlzDF OzCk Z
.Ch Dz qC Co Clh h F PGe Pÿz þCh b :P ECV ok .ClA
lDF l kohpF Dw DF lq ok pF koCkkh DV Dz Pe C :O
oD Dz kh pC kqCkpKF Mǡ Dw C dF pk v D Ovk DF
Od kr ok DOwF Dw Clqp oDFok lzDG۸N C lzDF OzCl
Co A DWC pd ok DN l DDN qC lCN kh DDzA DOvk
Co Dz oDF C CpF G Dv PwF oCk Dz qC Co PܮvC C k F .lF
lkF kCk F FCV Pܮv rV kF rZ pǾ okk MD CoC ok
ECh qCCo Z DG uD qDFpv kCk F DlC liF FDhp
PvC Z MoߤC ok koAokPpd Fzo lA vF kp oClF ص
.zDF Dz qC оDCl Co Dz ol
DOiGzhzDF۸NCCpFDF zDF OwFϵ F :PzCk oDC jvDJok
qC p pC Z PzCklCi N GDF r DA loCkOwF F DOwF
.lC kCk Uph F D Owv F ġ ok lzDFC
PdCp DF o߬ C lC kq F CCp MpR Dpv loCk N Dz p :O
MDܷ F Fp DoDlzDG MDkD C pC .Ch rZ b l
.D Eߥ lCiF G лz p F Co Dz DOwF DN lCiF qC lzDF
.oCkDܻOvC Ow oCk Dpv ܺ :P
PϿ A lzDF OzCk oD p lCiF Zp: O kp PGe C DF qDF
lF lCh Z p oClC oCn ClC lF Co Dz DDDN C e
ص"D kz DDN Dz p qC Z lzDF Dz C oDp DWC lClF
.k DWC oOvk Po߾ F PvC
F kGPpd DV"ԤC kq U kp q qC PV 첷ClG Mpd pdok
.oCk GDܻOvC zDF lNpR ܺ :PqDF ,llF FOvok ECVCDV
.oCkDܻOvC :P ECV ok qDF lCiF qC rZ kp oCpC C F Z p
C kp PGe ط ldqC pNlF lz PdCoD oDF Od .PzCk CkC oCpC
:PzCk oDC kCk k Co ECVkp d Co kh kpwh
oCk GDܻOvCl C PwZDܻOvC ܷ OwCkoCk GDܻOvC
FVDOdC lzDF oD p DWC FokD DA lzDF CDw Z ߨ Z oDFok
P DzkDJ qC Od CoC PvC pk Mol HdD MpR J qC pN D koCl
.lk DzJok J D PvChok F ko ECV PV F PvC OhDv qD F
Co pl"DGNp CpNok"C Moߤ C ok :O .lk D Oiv Da lk O
Ch oCk Ե Dz peqC ok F Clz Dz Oz Z D MD
(21) .DF P oC oCkC CpF kDq D kDOvC pdC qC lDz . pd Dz DF pOF
:PkpDDNDdoklzDF PdCoD Mlz F lk lǾC p C pZ FO
.kF lCh pVC D lDp p p CO D MDqC pC
.k Co C pN l ,kF lz z oDwF r pd Pzn kClDF qC PDv Z
.kp olF qC oCle DN k PGe .kpDdClh CqC OvDhpF
qC lF Dd kFDܻOvC C pǾ ok Cl CpN ok 첷ClG Mpd Co ߬ok
Co C oFr qo A CpZlk ܷ ZDܻOvC lvpJDz qC Dv lZ
.k DطOvC JokJ
:PzCkoDCkpDdF Co kho lF k MvCe DzDoP C ok
.lzDF MDd l okC C.lzDF ok ܷ DN F kp C
C .kz Ewe p C .lzDF ColqD pDd ClG jz UDd C
ok V b F kF kA hC DlF DOzq DN F Cok pDv hpF
CokpDv .lzDF oDrpJ O lCq ܷ DN F ,lzDF x rN pǾ
llF Hp Co DizC DN lq Cl Co lCh kCoC l rq"DGNp
vC C lF lzDF C ok D C ok pDd ClG jz
kzDOC F ol F DkD F l kCl qD F Co kh koA DFq F Co ϵ
...koA DFq FCo DܻOvC oDF lZ
qC DN MCpDh PhCkpJ iv F"CklW e lZ qC xJkp Mv DzDo qDF
kpk DOC DAqC Mlz Fk PDd Cok qC pk F DصC oCkp oDOo qp
lDPp WO kCk V kp kq J PDok CpF DFCo qpGN ǡ
ZoDǾC Z HdD iz ZDF oDF þkh lq ߬ok C
lzDF OzCl kV Pvk DOC qClC F CpC DNok lDz k kohpF oDOo
kFoCkkh pDNqClzDF p zlzDF lz OhDzDA OGC
.lqCkpJ ClOw PVDd o DCFqC pOvk F pDv ١Z qC ok Di
MCpDhcpzNDh qC xJ qo A FDpz wV lz PDv lvo DWC F O DzDo
pqCqo D oCk pDh F PD DDJ op PDv qC G Dz rC DW ioDN
lõ hC C FkFDDv lzpDd ClG jzDA C PAr qDOܮv
ľlFqo lZ .kGrok pDd ClG jz UDd C PA qo A .OzCk CCp
.D pNC CpFCo FDpz DpV vpF pDd ClG jzDA C PA Plh lz
P CpF CoDzDo MpeϵC MDDF ة Pk F pDd ClG jz C PA
qDFCo Dz DPGe phA V O lzkF kp pNkh GdD qCp
.PvC feF :lkpPzCk GDܻOvC DDF pDd C PA ,k
OzCk Ck uDNlD MD Dz izDF Pw qDV FDA CpFDF :kp Cv
?loCnF Dok DCDFCo ص F OG DwlzDF
. DwC:lkp
F C lõ Dz F Dz Dh VN wd DF lõ F Z CpF DwC : O
WOlkCk cpz DzDFCo kh MD C DOvCk O lC kpClJ Dz iz
phok aA CpZ. kߡ v F Co lC aok kCk p F MD AlOp
.loCn Dok DCDF llF DWC PvC cԤ
Clhh kh DC Peϥ DN :PzCk oDCECVok pDd ClG jz C PA
(22) .ߡDC Dd P dCrpdPvCCok Peϥ lWv ko߬ FCo
kp hDz pDd ClG jz UDd C PA PvC kF oCpC lk
MDpN qClzDF Dkh F pDd PvC O oDoDrpJ lCq ܷ DN F
Da koCk l kF Cokh A F kDv lq qC PvC Ckp o F
.kp oCkh oDF Cok pOF TeFqC PV FlzDF pDN pqC ok
Z pCkp kD F orF D CqC Oi D PGvD F DzDo
C PA CdC DdqC ԬCDF DzDo Pp Moߤ MD k C F
CpF pDd ClG jz UDd C PA p qC DJ oDF Od C lFkF pDd
FkhDܻOvC DDF,krpJ pDN qC DFo D C Da Fkz kDOvp Dz
pOvkOwCkOd Co Clh Dok F MkDG kCkCkCkh kDvlq
.PvC kp yCpCo ClOwqC
-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-

weDv UDd EDV DN, Dp ϵ FD EDOqC"DNlص DC CdC cpzok .1
Z 464 352- 348 MDe, 1350,CpN, k IDZ, DϵDo kDFD lFDN
Uol, DϵDo EDV DN, pDd DA Pdo PGvD F",lDV lq D
MDd Dqok D pnN VqC. PvC lz kDOvC, 1316lܿvC, CpC Dqook
,3 U, qCpz olC HD, DeC CpqC CN koACo DCdC cpz DC
."PvC ߻ Dk F MDD MDGOok DeC": DCl "Dب kpF D, 542-3
C A lz kDWC C Gz"CphC pDd ClG jz UDd DA dp kook . 2
CpCok CpF d S GO FkDOvCDF kh DGOzCpF N lص FD v F D F
PGw DC F koCl pDd DA F Fo Co NDDz, Co DvC Oz
W C qCp DϵqC p v Pp EC MDDW DCok cpz lF.lk
jz UDd hCqp UDd wd Cqp UDd DvCph ٱDlhA DDA ܷ
qC ColqD ClG jz UDd lkp ClC Pp F ColqD ClG
dp lzClJD F CpF DGOzC C.kp Pdo Pp CCok p v A
A Dd,lkp p ColqD ClG jz UDd dpDFCo pDd ClG jzDA
( Pp CC ) p 1324 qC lF DvlZ ܷ C qC G Dv 30kld k
CpN p 1322 Dv qC pDd DA A ب.kp Pdo 1356 Dvok C
.W lkF
.3831 PF, v pOk, w feN, ܷ S .3
145, 1377 ,CpN ,kCqD pJweCFC,qCo D EDOok"D D P C .4
DdkFkpvoDzCDϵDv EDV Pdo PGvD F olCHD.PvC Uol
:lA A PFok Dϵo EDVDCF G MkCoCqC

ϵ o ϵ Dv QoC

V DOpF oqC Pp k

. 543 3 U, DeC Cp .5
zDGkDh C Pط ClG DA dp VqC DC lOqCp lZqC .6
D vpkh PCl Dqok DϵDv Mpd PvC Dϵ MkDv pG
ϵ UDd D DqClFlkFkp kCk pDd ClG jz UDd EDV FCo C
lZqC xJ.lD NCo D vpkh hDF r pDd DAl DCCo
Dv zD F V kCVlv DA FCo D vp Dϵ Dv Mpd
GDCo A GdD A P FDN yDF OzCkCo PDC C lDp kCkkFoDpz
Pdo qC xJ .kz kpKv zCp F ߨkon CpVD CqC D Ml .l
,lkoA pN CpN F Dϵo Mpd pvok ,Dϵ Dv Mpd
V FCo Dϵo Mpd kCV lv DApwJ zD F V VlvDA
ClG jz UDd EDVqC Mߵk F Co Mߵk G DC .lD Mߵk oDpz
F Oo CpF DC qC lvo ClGjz UDd EDV Plh Vlv DA .l
oCpCDF l oCkkh Mߵk OpnJqC ClG jz UDd .lMߵkV
Mpd Vok.lA V F k G Ddp F lzVC Vlv
Vlv olJ )kCVlv DAkr ODC l Cv VlvDAqC Dϵo
F ߨqC Vlv DA .lD GDCo A oCk(kF kpM߾ D Aok
DA okD .kz DV ,kF lz kpKv yolJkr ODCqC VCpyokD F kF pGh
A OzCn hCkokCo nD G DMl MolJ koCk qCpFC V lv
pF v pqqCCo V oDCok Vlv DA .PvC kpDJ v pqokCo
:lDp DC .l lN Dϵo Mpd oߩd P취 DDF koA
ClG jz EDV .lCiF l qDFDN llF ClG jz UDd EDV FCo
d ,lkF Oz D EDC DF CoDϵo Mpd D Co kh iOvk qDFCo
Cq F lz pkkz ClNlkF kp ppeNCo A Dq pDh kp
PFDVCDϵo Mpd .lD lllWN ߿ HϬlOC Dϵo Mpd
Dϵ o Mpd DF oDpz V ok DCo l llWN Dv qo D ok kp
.lDPF llWN
64 - 5 , kDFAlF tF pOk lN N , ( l IDZ) OvCo DkD
Dz pd vN cp DpVok wz 1370 Dv ok DvDO pGO pG C . 7
.lz kÿ A xD HpiN 첷ClG
.kCq DpJ weCFC ,qCo D EDO F l Vo Dw C cpz ok . 8
CpN, CpC ߥN llVjoDN ok Dvo k , pZ ,(Dv)l C , v . 9
.133 - 4 , 1370
.DWD . 10
.p , D EDOw EDO ZDGk , pDd ClG jz UDd : .o. 11
. PvC lz IDZ ( wz 1313 ) p 1353 Dv ok lV ok Dvo k C . 12
.PvC lz IDZ p 1353 Dv ok r EDO C . 13
.PvC lz Uok CpC Dp oDz ok fC C qC k . 14
.U e , l , pCqp DrC lF l feN , D . 15
. 229- 228 ,1380 ,Pd MCoDOC ,k IDZ, fD DkD .16
DZlkF OhA h Fp qC pDd ClG jz UDd dp Co oDOo Z .17
dp Dpv qC ok PvC pDd kD DA dp DC lqp qC
Dv EDV Plh qo .lkF Dϵ Dv EDV Plh DlZ DzolJ
qC EDV A O Co v ok .lOo CpC oCrO F MDCoq lk CpF Dϵ
DN llDN C or Dok , koA ok Co kh ,lOo pk or F or
F Cpq .krp ,kF k q pFkF C q Dh qC C om Od
ص Pk C .kkp DF oq EDGvC kz Op D qC PpF lz HV DC
DZ .kF kppRC r pDdkDDA ,pDd ClG jz DA dplqpoDOook
F pDd P pq Pwi l pOk dp Ch F DF 1331 Dv ok O
koi oCkC ok DZ kh F lN Ml DN ok ,lkp DC OvpJpv lN
.(200,CpN ,k IDZ ,fD DkD)Ppm DSC oDDC doDk
kD kDOvCdp DzlzoC lqp lD F DC RoC vN ClF r C .18
Dqok r ClF .lz kDFD C Pط Cpþ Gn pþ xDW pDd
"CklWlkp HpiN C DOhDv 1366 Dvok lz pN DϵDo EDV dp
PV ok ClkpcDOOC phC DDvoklz OhDv pN D pN v DF pqDF
.PvC kDOvC ko pOe C MD
weClG DN , DzDo pDd ClG jz UDd MD qC dpz D : .o .19
.p ok , oC
Coz xW GvC DlD qC ( C jz ) oC weClG Co HϮ C .20
ColO Dv N) Cܵ PeN ,kF ϨD iz DhDo oDeqC Dq A
IDZ ( 220 DN 216 , 1345 Dv , 22 oDz ) Dk DDv ok (lz Ch P
qC D OD ) pwJ olJ EDO ok Z HϮ .kz "D DWCokkp
PvC Uol359- 349 , 1372 , CpN , Ϭ ke (DJ oDqo lq
pm 228 - 215 ,1 U ,ldC FldC ,J DDz joDN qC F Co A
.PvC kp
MkDv EDV pGok o pz rd kCrDC eok DzDo oDF DC Dok .21
PGe oDC PGw Dz ,kMD"DkDN pDd ClG jz UDd DADF Dϵ
GDܷOvC lkF kCk ECVDC ?vo DOOlh D CpZ :kF O ,kp
EkCokok :kF O ,lzol ol Dz .PvC MpeϵC DܺqC pOFD
F ok k, Oo pF Dz xKv .kF EkC lkF kCk ECV .PvC pz
DzDo r oDG lChon DC qC p qC :kF O OClO DA
,kDOvp V CpN Dϵ CpF DoD CC PzCk طkh Pܮv CCok
kCk xJ kp G DC .kF kDOvp ,OzCn ODJ ok DN l r DC CpF
:lkF Oz PDJ PJ ok

PvCop qo F zkDJ DF

pF PD pþ pFAD

.( 350 , Dp ϵ FD)
,lkp PvChokCo rZ DzDo qC pDd DA dp"ClF ko DN .22
A Cn õ C lz O Zp .kF Do lFDC q ߥhok
ClC d ߻ kookCo DC PDv kF DF DzDo oCrvDKv qClC
d p kook DzDo A Ddl G PqC UoDh lGN F A lGN
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