DC,ϵ,ߡh޴ߩh,Cd kA

DGC Mߵk oD
ok eN ppeN MD eN p
D TeF qC oDwF F k PwF p DOvA ok ϵ phC MeN
ClOFC qC .PvC kD DDJ Dw wϾ Gz MDD wϾ MkDW
Pkle pǿN PϷF"DGD DwC ,llC Mol o PpF ClJ
kG HD kh î Dp WO ok UoDh D qC FpWN wd DODok
OwCk kV kF ykh [ Ϸ ] Co rZ p ,kK DGOzC Dh Co
kleMCkV Dk kp oߥN ,kpz [ MDl ] Co NW Dk
k ClFlvDܡF lCO D lvDܡ Co rZ C pC lOw C DOhDz F
.koCl VoDh kV "ߤC rZ DZ PvC
PDok Pܷ PDdo ok F okD Z lkFDizC ClOFC D qC
VoDh PC Co kh MDN MCoߥN Dd ok lkG H D
DF C DpG pFCpF ok kD lWv pF pv ߡh ߩh DV F ,lOzDC
MCm kV F kh D F h PvokD rA wv lOvC F wN
.ll ppv DGC DC ko F ,OhCkpJ TldC ulC
lC qp C CpJ wϾ pǾ lz oCllJ qC lF QkDd D PvC l Ow
kF A HO C CpJ lOvC .lkD DF Co wDpND D kD PDC HO
DF DDq ok koCl lpA F qD PvC h F D DV
wϾ pk DpV pǾ D HO C pFCpF ok .lD lCh DF kF
EV F D Qld qC OwCk l p QkDd i Co D lz oCllJ
HO k C qC UoDh .k lOvC DV C Dh CܷF kVCHVC MCm
DDCo F kF oCppF pF joDN ok r pk pǾ DpV lC oDO
pV H Co co lkF DizC e C DorF .PzCk ϷN C
Dh ,PzCkoCp Cl DGNoC ok d DvA UCC DF DoDG kV eO
C pvCpv kCl oClPpF F DA DFq qC d Co qC q DDvA
DNC Pϵ F PvC ECpva kF F k ,EA o pF FDGd lD Ow
H d DGdD .PvC OD ClJ o ,okD l lClhCr kV F
F F kle kph A ,pF kph CpF pA qCo ok lkr
.Pw pw , lkph

PvC k ok p kCq CoDF ok         

         PvC qC DF C lCk J

kV ] ko okwd [ Gw ] DODok pF OG DlOvC lkp DA
( Dz eC ݵ ݲC ݻ ) PvC D ݱ qC PGN [ d Ϯ

Dok p F xh lvo pC         

          J kpF kph NCm p F

. PvC MD qC oW MDm kCq ݱ lkr kDp DA

h D F DzC q kon        

           h DJDF kk ݱ p DDv

kp ص vN lClh DkDOvp ivG qC D p wv DOvpJkD DC
ϵDV MD쿡phDF DN PzCk CkC Da P취 C ll
.PhDv koC vDvC zlh kD PDC HO CpJ MDD okol sN
.lvo DDJ F lFCCpF kDPDCФC NNC OwlzODz DF pC ClOFC ok
fv qCpNokpO 450 ok pJߺDFwNoCpOvC ޴CpOhCr A qC lF
FpWN o߮F DN kCk DC C F krC pFF Pv pF Dk okq
lD lDעh ١aF lFDok pOF Co DC DGCMDDp C pV
Dq p e ok J o Dv koD krDJok C C ok DV
kD l kV p F l aok qC lz QkDd DD F NA Moߤ F
heNok OlCpJ D oD zok H oDWC J ok olF
.PvC lzpkDCpVC DkoD oCr Dl F lG
rCMpdDOpv DF lpJߺ lzohDkoD Dz p DD
Z .lD ClOFCpA C Ph A qC pl qClz okDd ok
DpPe CpZ .Po kDFpF lz EApF kD PDC HO D DJ kF
PvC iQkDd kh PDNokDlzi PPFDRDC DGC
OvC R).PvCMCnF D l ClpAlqDۢpA l qC Uph CpF
(21-3 .D DO DNo DODƧoC MCwCC 41-11 . Dhk DwCϵ
ok DdAokq DDvA lzOw kF kk D DvA pF Clh)
.(kpDzqDF qC lkFlaJ
  Cd kA
PvC C kp DF DvAHO okDkDOvpDFq qClClh k O
Oi DkCt okCo Dz ClpAkp q qCþ CoDz D kp C
DF DN OhDv lCpJ oDo D G D D qpv MDO Dw
oDzADOp kClOvC MDNpkCߵ [ePwq] CpzpN F VN
PCp,oDkopJ ١Zok lpFCpF DF MDOhC C ٺ pF lFDok , kkp
DF߷z DϷV SCpmDhDCuDCDCD) PvC DzoDrpJ F Dz
ok ص DtJ k MDeN qpC.(NCClܵpCC,߾oDO DG
FPvk vDzDOvDFDyDvDzDwC vDzs vDzPwq p
DJoC DOvJlvDvADvCDpA DF l PFDR kCk Pvk
wqCkCDh kCpClD,lCCpkCDhMDFDCoCk..Dk kp pDv
CDC DGC PelPFDR oDwF C .lzDFokD olJ
.ko oDzF d ol PvC CD GoDGOCpD
OzCk oCp CpGػJ lDN ko ClOFC qC v O p qC lF co oClDJ
PvCA lCOzCk pFk oD kpoClF okyNDorF CAuDvC pF
C OwDDJ p lFD CkCDawV lzzO qC xJDwC MDd
ok Co ok lC lz ľ ClءCk NDeNDzo DF qpC .Pw
kr޴r Ddok Co oDF A VqC.loCkpF DD C PC
rW kDDOvkDF lloCpDZpJ rClok PvC p F
DpNKDp qC [p] Owv DFxKv.lDoCkpG CpeqC
pOorF pFCpFDl DkCopOp ,kprDA Co DClp oDwF
,p HDþ J ok ll DDtJCФDd.lqDwpOk
,lr P vok F pCk lZ ClOFC ,kz UoDh DwC lFqC pNC Dv
klZ qC lF ,lDϷ C q F ,DNC v kr C lFDFxKv
, HN þ plPFDR FpWNC.kߡ llJD kp pN Co e
goA DFDrrpkC F, PwlF woDDOvkkDOC oD qC
oDwF lCODokhDvopFokDtKCo CDCo pkHDVqC.ll
DFChAwPizD D DFDGNoCAsv lClkDFChDDVCpqC
DDv OdD ,D D ,D O,Dqo ,lz Po Do ok CRkDd DC,OzCl lk Co
hpFok.PvCkDOCDNCkF lz lD NoߤDF Dok Dk lF
qC pGh lߡlD EChoklCOo Dk qCJDDv DizC koC qC
.ll go MoߤDF C AlF ll CRkDd
qC ,lOw EChDFqkF lD lkD koC CoDADvpF
ClqoC FpWN MDD ߥh C ok DOvoD DF orF CDCo
qC p e ok pNC Dv PvCADtJCФDd .PvC kCkDWC
DA kߡpD OiףDizC EChoklFDDv kkp ClVDwClF
qC PvCo߷z DF oClDJkV kqDv C lAokRkCdFPGwCo
DC DoDFq qC kDOvC DF CoGD OpuDNkp qChpFDFD Doaok
l .PvCkA [Co ]D-oDGOC F- oClDJ [ pNC Dv ] C .lD
CܵF Co DAMkDz PvC qD pF lDC Co GϮצiz oDZO
PwF l C.lokD Co khd ADG pF kpnKFPd PC
DVQldoDFokDNCoDC Pe lCkF C kD pGػJ oCr oDZ
kA Co llMkDz lvo MDGRC F pl F kA FkCDh DNC
Dp FDd ,lpv pkDVok lDoClDJ wVqC ClVqCxJ
PepFqpCDˡDqAMDFpWN ϵ A Dh ,pnKF CoDA ivlDF kph
C DFqCC DC DGC .pNDF WOCpF kF NDl DC.lDCA
kp DwCHϮ C oAkD Pwi .l k DGk Co l HD
pk ok D , ! Co p pPvC ok Co DV DoD .Pw C oDZ p qC
Ow ok pN F ,Pw kA Ow DDJ p A O kPvC
.lB pF Dh lF qC DwC A PvCC

Clk  l ok  F  Dk qC          

      wDdFlvoOiv ZC ll

DV ko ok  F  yrr kV qC         

      PDv Aok kF PDdZ uD

DN [lF lZ] D ok pOlF DF DwC ,kp qC xJ A O v
.lD lCh oClDJ D OwDDJ

lz pFDVq vpN Z xJ        

       lF  oCk ,  lF  F    N C

PvC lDJ lq q o Z        

       PvClq okp?vpN ZxJ

vok DN ب C DC DGC MDl CpFDFoClDJ OiGzh DN
Dpv F DN l lq e Z F lDF DwC llzpnO lOhA PpF F
.lA D pqC xJ MDd CpF OGS oCn

oDz klG ok  Dk  F  k       

       oDqo  kkpF    lkpF  xF

oD b lD N r A qC J       

       F oDlvo POvkC

oDG Dh kF lCh Dh      

       qDۦizzCkqpk

oD  kF D  DF  A  Po DW  DF       

       MDd lCk Co pk Dv

oDF  DGq  Mpv  okCpF  C       

       Pw b pD DGq Moߤ

oDF iN MlDF oC ph       

       pGF Wo HϬ ok Ch X

Dv 300 qCF lCOFDwC l PpJ olAzrJ ϵ Ƨp
oDZkq ppkDv DWJ lF J ClءCk Dd ok ,lpص
oDV Dv DWJ C ok C rV DA?kp lCh oDZ D DwC.kߡԺ e
OvlNoDZk Co pkDv DWJ PwkA l qlC phm kh CpF
p qC xJ D lk oCl D F DC DGC C !?kߡ oDaF
.PvC DNphmV qCDOvk D lq Dv oCr lv qC F DwV
O F DFoA .k ةN DN Co p qC lF MDd lzfDص F lDF
q DDvA DN Dh wV qC PCp PoD qC xJ kA Co] d DGdD
F ,lz kph MoߤC ok Pw lkpN .lDlCh oClDJ loCppF
.lD NA DNF drp o߷z

DصCAqClFPvCoHDN D    

    DCJPvCDF pCN

ChplJ ivqC ChN     

     N DFPvC Fpz aA

D DwC F DN ko iv Zo o߷z Pز qC [C] ov ok Ap ok
lCk DZo .lzDF OzCk DZorp o߷z qC pOok lDG kqDF
ok pC PvC DNkpƸV qCDOvkDd ok lC lqDOwq ok
oDaF OvlN Oiv F DC A ok lzDG DDOwHvDߥq pǾ F
߬ lA DN CpF rDJ DOwFDN oDF ok o C qC .lz lCh OG
oCk oDZ F kleDOw A oߥN F ,оDkp DC .lz h
, p qC xJ MDd CpF HvD Cpz DN qC PvC p qC J DN lq
:lCl qD F Co kh

PwDOwqpFٺZPpٺ      

    o F kDOvp V l pJ Dh

phm OhlC F qD ypص e p ok kA l kp F DC DGC
CpZ ,koCk p qC lF MDd߬ DC CpF oA kv oCnDpv fD DصC
.PvC MphA or Dk

olOqCrVF١ZoD      

    pwJ DFPyh Z koiDv Dk

Ckp lz lDCDhok lOwDGd lD DkCok DDصC
.loDFF

ok D lA h O qC kD    

       uCk   lk Ͼ rGv  or

kA kV pVCpFˡ oClDJ OiGzh DN DC DGC DJ oD
.PvC DwCCo

Po kDFpF kF Oh p           

          Po kDO F Mpص C DF

lk    DصC  F  qD           

           l  oCqDF    PD

OzCk  D  oCq kDp  F           

           OzCk DFq w kppC

oDzPp lZ k oDF N           

           oDqo lF PϿ F Co D

Dd ,PvC kC CC kDq F zp pi aqDF YJ Dk lq DD
eC DC ) .PvC pOF lD DF oDkopJ EDwd ok fD ص qC aAA
ph MDeDC MDDGC kC CC pRDN F phDN q DlC
OGC PvC MkDG fDص ( Folܵ

Pw k kDWv fGwN F           

            Pw h Plh rWF MkDG

D kh Do l lF Clh Co ok Co A DwC PvC ص MkDG Plh
V okDV lCiqD Dw qC oDwF lW Ap kpF .lk DWC
Dw op DoC Dz qD DC qC Dz rC Cpq ,(ϥ߾) loCk
Dd ok lDvpF kClC Clh DlF F P h o qC DwCpC DC .PvC
Pϵ F PvCMkDG DWCDdok lD J ߩh ߡh Np Z
.lz lCh G p Xd qo qD S C pk DصC ,ߩh

PD NDd ok o qC pF           

        PD ܡN v DFDF ok

hoDOvkPwFAolCGdZ          

        llwJ A kp k

kCk  EA    Co  CND  v           

         kD qDFPwF DPlhF

kp  ߿  C  DD  oCk             

         kp  Dd  qC  pGػJ  kCk  pGh

lv lClh .PvC fD ص pOF OzClءZ b lF Clh h F Plh
orF MoDwhkonypص qC ep okDwC koi Dq ykpF
N llDWCfDصDCo qC DwDSOvDF ,kߡ eO Co
MDeDC ص A nCCpwh DwC CpC ) lD pG F dF
p lzDF D kh Do DF CN O DwC DصC .(pGDF CߤCN eDF ߤCN
MDGVC DWC ok DDv ,DJ D kDOC PۣhlF DizC .lC fD
pm MkDG F fG DN D Hz HD ,lz..... Xd qo qD S pz
C Mߥe kq H C oDGC F D y lC oCkoDGC lD lߡ ߻ pǾ
.l N ll ol Co

    lA  V  l           

        l oDGC C ok D

?PvDW Dv l MDD l          

        PvD oDGC ok kqk y p

ߡh ߩh
PDC kp DDJ P Owz ok P DJ MkDG G C pz xJ
Dh Co C , CpDh ok qC DwC zk pOorF Cpq .PvC PDw Epv
pN ClOFC D ,lD klw Co C cԾ pN lzo qCok l ECph
C) PvC F kh Ch kh OvpJ kh p ܷ CDw rCp
l ص lC kCk DF NCoOvk lDF DwC w ClClC .(GVF OC
.lG D okCo kh rp

PwDJFhCoAJl      

     DJDhpFPwAPD

PwDFDFߺC qC pNǾC kp      

      Clh Co ok ! x pJ qC ond

PwDwVpDWJpvFD      

      ǡF PDo  qDF  F k WJ

PwDJdrV F,lCon      

      F DC ,kp N pص ФDd

Pw CoDF lk rV F oD oDZ      

      PvCpNlCPlvpFpiFDN

uDwdC Dh qC MkDG e ok DwC PvC A QhC l PԵ
q fv o pF EA rp [! lpF DN Dh z Dh] .l pOFkDOC
p ok EA .loCl Co CoDF G PFD Piv D .kpoCp Np
oDkopJ MkDG P ok oCorF DC첵 Piz A.kz DJ Dh
kF ( )HDFC F ϵ CpC D Mpd ll qC pNrZ D Co kh
DiFpv kplWv ro .Pp(Dh olJ) [ECpNFC] H() pCvo p qC
EpN ClhF F Dh F pvܷ .[EpOC lWvC].kߡ Ϸ DWCqClDv
oOvk pGػJF lClh .l qDF Co Dok lWv.z kr Clh F zDh .V
.kߡqDF oF ԾC ok PzCnDhpF DJODwC .ll kp lWv
ok . kߡ PFDVC (ykh CpF DC) lCiF Cpk CpF Clh qC Z p
PDdCok
kp oCpDADk ء ,lCi Co lClh DDh Cpk O WO
pqC lFDVCpF HvDuDGODF CpF A h .kߡ CkC NDVDd
zF DDصC feN ok lDF .koClߥ DOD qC Co DDd lD
DhpF lWv F pvDwCO . DJ pq Co kh PDC P lDF oDCCpF
fD DصC kߡ HGv koDG H DvA qC CoDF EA S l
DN fD DصC F OhCkpJ .l DJ pF DOvF DF .lk oDF pF lz rGv
.liG DDJ C DrrN F Dk C ok l p qC xJCo DwC lA

MDW  k  NDGR  F  q Co  h          

         MDGR N M lk C

DC ϵ
* lz DWC [ FD ] D Dhlo vN D ص FDqoC k ]
zh pF CO qo k Ml F IwN C l lo D DOvk Oo Cp DF
Dv koD kqCk ϤD ok , D CoCr qC D xǵ [ DN ] D
D zh qC [ FD ] D Dhlo G Dv v . lz N D Dܾos ok o
k C wD .PzCkpF D xǵ [ pGC Ek ] Ͼ Moߤ ok C D
pl DF DA rC EDWC DODGz D D MDO k qC xǵ Ovk
CpF ,PvC D pvCpv pF r D ldC D pv qC qoDF D
F oDF C .PvC CCp PC rDd O ClJ qCo pA oCpvC ok
p D D ϤD iN ,DG Cܵ F[ oCqD] Op p ok Pϵ
첵 kDFC h qC - DoCkpGwǵ C .PpnJ DWC pOF Pk DF zh
ok eN DW D oC DeF - lzD N Dq ФC߾ D
[ ll G o Dv DkoD ok O NOwi MDe
lC k CoC PldC ulC MCm Mld ko ok pǿO õ k qC
pC PvClJ .PvC kV D pvCpv pF ldC D pD P Mld k
qC Cz p lCp d Ow D MCom pF D pFl P qC F
ok Clh .k qpF OzA kDw l pFlN pFlN NDO e F D
pFl DO lClh rV pC ܷ .DNlw C C CD D : lDp lW Ap
pC C DF pN F D .k qpF OzA kDw kF DV ok pk
ϱ pz , ߡ pz F D DO lClh CpF pwJ C .첵 ٲ
.PvC orF
C ho,976 oDz
(science et vie)[ MDd ϵ ] pGO W qC HϮ C *
 
. PvC lz uDGOC 20 xoDJ IDZ 1999 Cs

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