(1 MD W) CpC Dp
PF Dܷ ok NDd
DϷFnW lFDN ϵ o pOk UDd
e O ,lA F P qC PvC yp lph ܷ F P ok PF
koCk DOhC PF F FN pz ov qC 111 A Ap ok . Dh yp lph
DF CC wC C pOzC C C" lDp A ok lClh
PvC PF A DF FD ok ,kph Co D DV lClh /" WC
MoDWN F lN D C qC Ap pk MDA ok ,PvC C D ykh C
CA nC DC D" : lDp ov 11 10 MDA ok "S . PvC lz pGN
lDWN vo DF N ? C ECn WN oDWN ϵ kC
qC Co Dz NoDWN F F PCl Co Dz DA ,lkoA DC Dw C /"C Gv
.l kDV Clh Co ok loDF vo Clh F DC ?llF MDW C ECn
C EDO O nC C" :lDp pD oDG ov qC 29 A ok r
DizC C..../ "oGN oDWN Vp Ե Cpv DqoDCÿC ϥCCDC
.koCl Dq lOw NoDWN DWC F oClC

:PF CC

kp VN lDF O C F koCk CCp D Ap ok SN yo C
rZ k A l GN pk rZ F Co rZ D kz kq S O
ko pC MD F ,lzDF Gz DF oC DN ok lDG (F G G)
lD p PvC kp pGN uDG F Co " N " Ap ok "S .PvCp
Z , PvC pN N uDG / " ph m OC uDG ": (26 , CpC)
pF ) lDp kp pm uDG r F q CpF Co pz pz CpF Co q
Dz uDG DA DO Cpw uDG Dz / " uDG OC uDG " : (187
.lD GN oCkp Pz koh F Co kp PG pk DV ok D ,lOw
C ,CpFDF .... " O pǾ ? "DO hC e D C ldC HeC " (12 ,MCpWd)
PF PvC ܷ F Z C Cܵ F CN PvC ClO Ap ok yo
pm "ClF DZ Co A CN xJ ,Ƨp C D Co A ClF NoDWN Co
vC ol ok.k pN pGN oCkD lv CkC Cܵ F lz lCh
DC llz EDpz ( )pGDJ Mpd oߩd F ok DDw
ܷ DN þ ,lkF kp Pd xvDN q pGDJ DWA qC ,lkoA
Ap MDA HD C pFDF ,llz wN pGػJ MG F DA ,kF lz FC vC
O DC l pm k p w Cܵ F DC qC lz qD ok
oDwF lkCk ǡN Pd DWA ok Z -lkpF pN l F vo Mpd
Dw k ok ,llz wN Pd F "CpD (DþD S) kp qC
PF qC p lz nhC pGDJ HDV qC l ok DWC ok OF C ok.lkG
: PzCk kV PF k DWC ok ܷ .kF
lz Pd pCC wN iz A DF kF OF - G PF :C
F ,Pp qo lCh qD "S . PzCl vC F kDOC
G .kp PFDN DDN C ok qpC DFq F ܷ .lz wN Pd
qDN DO F vC Pd PFDN DC r F pGDJ HDV qC PF
DF UCkqC vC G A DWC DF ,kF G PF Pdok .kF Dw
,PF lF vo Mpd Dqok .lz rDV C CpF kpF QoC pk Dw
.kp PF r oCh pV l Od fO qC xJ .lOpnJ Co x b vC
oDz F vC PF qC MDO kF DC PF, pk PF - PF : E
ok Z - Dw ܷ . kF pGDJ P GV DF PF Pd ok , Pp
Pd F lz wN A q ) llz wN pGػJ MG F - A qC lF Z
ok p OGC . llz DC C ok hCk PF C DF( kF pGػJ
, vC PF D lkp Dh lkCk oCp Co pGػJ MG Dq D
. DA ECpC PD" lDp MCpWd ov 14 A o C qC . PvC koA DC
l ECpC /"F DC hl D . DvC C . C N
vC . lz wN D lF F,( CN ) lkoD DC F . koA DC
vC kF CrW DWC qC . PvC l koC Dz H ok DC A Dd , koA
O DF PvC Pd pFCpFok wN D r F vC . PvC Ϸ DC
HϮ C DGk F . PvC H F Fp DC kz ФDd DFrF NkDz
ϵ C N CvC C ϵ " lDp pGDJ F EDh 17 A ok
pF , pGDJ C ܷ" kD O C D Cl C ϵ C F vC
pF Co DNkh vCF DA F N , lkoA vC loCn P N pF pGDJ
Dz- koA vC vC F- koCn P Dz pF lClh F , loCn P
. PvC DC l vC kz Ϸ A C qC . PvC kp PCl DC F Co
C DGk ok . PvC DC lF vC ,kߡ vC lF DC ܷ
. lzDF kD DOkoA vC ok pC ܷ " kD O C" lDp OGC A
ok kp VN lDF MDeN C DF . lzDF koA vC Pd upN qC C
pGػJ Pdo qC lF , kF Od PF qC ClV DC PF pGػJ Dq
nhC l lzCo Dh qC b , kF ( ) ϵ P PV F DC PF
qC "DGD DA Z - DvDG DC Ph Cok ok .kG OF Z
pFDF-lF PF k MDN O C F VN DN lkF koD DC pب ص
D C llz VO pC Cn 1 PvC Pd CpF þ lkp oߥN C
.kDOC ph ok CoCorF A DV ,lp PF

( ) oDC C Dq ok DC PF pC ClN

Mpd V qC , lkF kp PF nhC F mD kh HDV qC Co Dw () C
PF DC HDV qC lkF kCk oDOhC kh ص d le F ( ) kDWv
Co DC PF MCpd A kF oCppF z C Cok DN ok pC C . kpF
.lOp PF DlD vN Dh ok"DGD, lOwCk HVC D Cp
F
qC o߬ D , lz pN vC ok PvC pC PF F HNpN C F
pnC FDv A qC " .... ܷDG MDC DV CmC ":(12eO)Dq PF A
D DV lph k oC F lN D PF C ok lA pF "... pOzC C C"
Dq CpF kDV Cpq , V kDV CpF lC kp oߥN F DZ , kz
DA Od vC joDN ok) PzCk CkC PF d Dd ok ,kF lz peN
jw (lOp Od PF D vC PF , lOzCl VN DC PF F
O . lzDF oCppF r C PF d l DF C pFDF . PvC lD Da A
ok . lOp PF DDlD D CoCorF A kh , () C Dq ok lz
vC kF C þ ( FoC EC) FoC Pߥh kqCk DC Dq
lz O DA F Mpd PDC e Z"S, lkF DC DF Dz pD DGNoC
F lOp Co lOz Dz D p , lOwCk Co A kF
F p oDZ C . lkp ko GdD F , kp nhC ECV llDvo Mpd
PvC lz Oz HO ok lkF PF nhC l Dzkh V b
lV jz l pF DC p qC Dq C ok PF nhC pC . lOp PF
Dq qC xJ PvC C HϮ cpzPG Cok ok PF nhC Z. kF kClF
p F Do Mpd kh (1) lz llN Dz F PGw Dÿh ()Do M pd
Z , kpF PF DC p qC lkCk qDVC kF DDFok hp
. l N kh DV F Mpd A ԬC qDVC DF lk Co Dw
r v pv . lDvo DC HߥN F kp N Co v pv , hp p
C kqCk DC Dq ok kp N Co kClF lV C PzCk Co oDOhC C
DV kh CpF lkCk qDVC C F Mpd PG qC lF . PzCk Co oDOhC
DDV l jw DC PF Cn . kp N DV r C . l N
DN OGC . l PF nhC lzDF DC Ow p lD C ok lV
vv lD , ߥN wv, DC wv"DdԮC Co MCqDVC Ozo wv
qC - EDwOC C Pe , lCk DC F HwO Co kh lOw Oi
F Co kh vv Cpq . kp oCp vopF eN ko lDF - Dz D p
Pw Ϸ DWA qC . PvC h Dz qDVCOzo ok lDvo DC
w Cn ,lzDG h Dz qDVC Ozo ok lDvp DC F Co kh vv
Oi vv ok kz kp G Co oFr p MDl C
Cl lFDok DN l eN vopF lCk D wv C ok Cokh Dw
"DDdC Co vv D wv A ,lvo DC F zlh lF yC qDVC wv
.llF oCp p ko loCk DC F DNC

PF nhC Z

o߬ D . Pp uDN Pvk DF lDF Pvk kF DZ vC ok PF vo
Pvk pl F p C D p OF p ok PvC vo r C
DF D FA p p qCD Pvk o pF zJ DF r Dq ko ok . lk
. lzDF oCppF DOvk w Ow p o߮F lOp PF fGwN qC kDOvC
DWA lClh . kF Dh e F Pvk k uDN C DC PF ok OGC
F EDh " lC ߾ Cl " (11fO ) PvDA Pvk DF lClh Pvk lDp
C " : lC kp PFClh DF C ok l PF N DF Dw PvC pGػJ
Pw kD wV Z Clh O . ( 11/ fO ) " C ߷DG DC ߷ DG nC
, lzDF C DC pGػJ , kh kDOvp vN - kz PF C DF Ow
Pvk lvo F Ovk k ok lDpFlCh C ok kp PF
" PvDz Pvk DF Clh Pvk" qC o߲ . PvDOvk A rV lClh
. PvC

DpO qC hpF DGOzC

Dq p ok O " PvC kF vp C DkC ok DC PF vC qC G
- e . lFD lطN Po ( ) e kr ( ) w"S .kF Dh Moߤ F
. FD lطN N Pvk F lDF P - kF DA () w NA MDD qC Z
O Z . lF lطN Cp lDF N "Է : kp ECV ok () w
PDo F ( ) e oOvk Hwd pF Op lطN qC lF . PvC C Ϸ Dq
DC PF Dw F Dw Pzn dpz DF.lvo pGػJ F PhCkpJ
A CpF PvC O Է Z lCk Od þ Co PF , lOw lO
Dܷ F ФC ok PF P Z C pk O .lOw D oDGOC
Co kh D DV DwC PvC DC lN C F PvC yp lph
l v DvDܡvC pOw ypF ,lzpFClh F PF CqC ok
lpF on Dܷ F Co PF CqC loCk DFC Ap VpO qC F o C qC
F lN D oCkDlv Dܷ F DNlص lC kp VpN pk MD F Co A
Edward) N koCk C C (Blachere Regis) pzF S .PvC oD DWC
jurer allegeance)
F Co A wCp DFq F Ao VoNok (Montet
A Dd lC lCkppF oCkD lv ܷ (Serment d'allegeance,
12 A ok o߮D . lzDF p k PF PvC p pC lv
" ܷDG MDC DV CmC GC DC D" lDp pGDJ F EDh eO ov
DG" : lDp A phA ok ,.... l PF N DF llA Dq O /
Ϸ A CqC . oDOvC DCpF PF DA DF xJ /" C pOvC
. PvC p Pw lv S , koCk G p " PF" kz
lkoC vC Dw ok Dw Od lz TDF PF d Dܷ qC PϿ
DFq F Co Ap " C ld owpJ S-lOw Dp D F DA "DDdC
fidelite) FCo PF lߡF DGOzC oDZk r , kp VpN wCp
HNp "CpD r Ap wC VpO . lCkp qDF oCkD lv
(Jurer
To swear fealty pGN qC (Arberry) pFoA DZ lC lz DGOzC
To swear allegiance qC Pikthall DN J VpN ok
fealty Plight one's pGN qC Yusuf Ali
ϵ vVpNokphDF
ok "CphC . PvC oCkD lv Dܷ F FD pFDN C lz kDOvC

P C Z pC . lC OwCk PF kD Co Initiation P lk HO F
pD S ) kz PDo r " PF ok PvC PvC FCkA MDpN rF
qC p , koCk MDN " PF DF Dd C DF DC(..... OzCk pD uDG D , lF kF
N kD- P sClD- PF P P COF lDz o߬ F . PvC A
.kz kpF oD F lDF , koCl