1 vDv CpC - p CpC
(3 MD W) CpC Dp
lFDN ϵ o UDd pOk
F PvC vo MCkD , lN ,p F OwFC Pp P Piz
p .l pN Oi D PGvD F P lZ p vDv Dqp
ok Co pwh pD jF ok Co Wok Co D PvC D CpC lN
qCpz ok Co Dd lv lpvokCo.... qv ko ,Ϸ DOwDC
ܥN D G ߮h pC qpC . koCk pDV F ookCoo DGC
: ko F qC p PDC A rp, PvC koAkV F Co vDv Dqp
. l oCrpF r oz qC lz Do D oV kp Co qo ݡV
MCkD p.lD oCrpF DOwVDN Co "VDN d" Dv ϵF oCr ݡV
vo MCkD DCpC koA vC qC lF .kkp O w F w P p
ColJ QCp vo MCkD A DCpC lD DF PzCl PDG vC DG DF
kD pV DC Mpd lDN F lD DF DN qo l .lkp d Co kh
aA "ߤC lD DF r ov GzoDZ vCp .koA PvkF r Co wC ϵ
p ok koCl NDD vC DF "Dw PvC lD DF CpC l vo qC
pO Dv l lZ oCr qC lF"Dw PzCk MDD pC PvC lz lDN
DF Mol DNDF q ov GzoDZ ok NA kp zo C D.lz
k CN vC ok PvC ONoq Hn Cok oDkD Z p ,PvC lD
R ... DkoC C C : p ov 72 71 MDA : C :lz D A CpF lDN
... kz (NA) A koC C p Pw Dz qC xa ... CNC nC W
J qC TkDdC oDGhC ok : k ... k MDW lC OzCk CN Co DA D xKv
PvC lz kCk MoDF F lA D F iv NA o qC oG Cp
,A o qC ypJ NA kp zo vo .l oG A qC Pv Pv F
ok OzCk C G k p vC k ok Z ONoq k ok Z
p F .lzDF kp p D qoA C qC Gv lCN - lpOߤC
ok vC D qC lD D DD qC Co vo pDv vo C PV
F vo C kp pO ok v .kp d lDF PvC lD DV F lz ko p
F pC ,lOC ok OFp Moߤ F DV ClO pDF p lvo DV
P kp Ml qCok ok WODF ,kz ľ Ml DN ok pD Moߤ
pF DN M DF vo C ,G DoD lz p pF e F kz C
DF vC PvC FDv oz qC lz ClV Dw Doߡ DS lDz .kkp
p p o vo MCkD qC . PvC kp o D A ok DN Mol
kkp N N C Hwd pF oCv D kDz Dqo . PvC N P
lkp O lF w F w qC D p PvC oCk o vo MCkD qC
oCkohpF Oز DZ qC DOvCk "lV oDkD" qo l PvC Z .PvC
,DOwDC ,CpC Dv) p DCpC DN Cߵ MDvDwdC PvC
,ew , Ozkoq ,Dw qC ٵC (... DOwVDN ,Co ,CoC ,DWDFomA
C NoDG F D kop C D qo . PvC koA ok kh pN F Co DA p
p qC lF pC qo A ,lzDF p qC G pC d UpF F xz eN .PvC d
ok eN PDv DwC .loA EDwd F kop C Co qo A Ckp lzDF
Doߡ ok .kF kop C GzoDZ Cn kF GzoDZ p qC G CpN
Dpz ok Od ) loCkD DF pO p "CpSC D " CpC pN pz
lF eN PDv(...... FCq ,xhpv , DV PFpN ,Ch lD CpC pz DOC
C F VNDF PvC kF GܡWJ D A l Cn PvC kF e pqC
.lC kCk oCp PvC rp Co CpN oDC PvC kCkCp MDC
lzoh ykp Dl kDOC F D lzoh ok F qykp ok wz Dv
GvDe vC qC lF D Ml DN vC qC G CpC NokDC ,PvC q ok F
lzoh -Dl lõF - ykp DF wz Dv N Cn kG fe Dv
~ w ~ Dh.kCk Dq pN kop C qo l Cn PzCl DGC
1139 D 1137 DF G pW 517 D 515 O) CpC oClD W Ck Do
lC V Dv D F k cԤC Co ClO N k GvDe DF ( k
. lkp ط N C p CpC DN ok xJ A qC lD "V N" CpA
pSC DOwVDN , Cp , pN , qDÿ î ,DOwBC lD Doߡ
PC Op l N C Hwd pF Co qo FDv oz qC lz kCqA Doߡ
wz D D DF G r Dv D D DOwDC ok .lk ClF Dh
... CqV ,oR ,d : lC kCk oCp Co Fp UpF D D D DV F DO , PvC
kh FDN Dw D oV ok DN kpF oD F Dz DF r oz
PvCh "oz P" D F Co llV P l e Co DO DG
,kp ߵ Co D A N Od pw C ok l DC D ClF l kDWC
D P C p MCkDOC .kp ClJ VoDh kV CpOhC P l ľ
pOwDh C kDF yq lD oz zDJp lD DF pOwDh pq NA a
kh p okCpF DF Doߡ C Po î "D oClC . kq oD Co
Pvl okD p Dz ok DF lz D Ϸ CpC ܷ
A dD qC pC lF ok DGC pOi D F l Z DvDO ,lzDF
p Gn MDvDwdC pC C llzpNok D qC Po F qC lA ص F D
l p Mld pw ok O k .kqDv pRDO Co CpC
PvC C ,lzDF op DCpC D CpF C . PvC ldC h ldC N
okD Ck F kCk MDW oz pǾ MoDvC DGk qC Co kh CokCpF C
Pd oC pF vDv Dqp PvDv Z qpC .CkppFDzp
ok CiF CpC Cp Co pG lC W ,DeoFC ,ϵF ,Dh pC ,l
pF Co FDO HN kz pGN" vDv CpC" F CpC P C lz DmC
koCk ϷN" p CpC" F D F DorF C kp N lDF .krC
qC lF p lZ PvC C DpV N ko ok . vDv Dqp DF CpC F
N cԤC CpF( pW 963- k 1585 O) krv oCp IDJ Dh
k cԤC Dh dԤC lD Co k N P C PhDv oD Co O
lkpG C qC D HN o qC D lOzCl ԬC Dh G p lZ oD qC D DA .
C llD
(Gregorian Calendar) oCp N Co kh dԤC
lN F C ok kF oFD C Z p Dh .kz kDOvC A qC r
kF o C qC PzCk ϷN "p CpC" qo A vC DV p
CokCpF C F lDF . lkp ClO qo A p CpC p DN ok C dԤC
joDN ClG k N OzCn oD DF k N p CpC DV DC
A D D DF Co Dh dԤC N lqDv oCppF ()pC vo MpW qC Co
CpF xKv lpF oD F (... CqV oR d D ...kCkph PGkoC kop) N
kl ok CpN kߡ oߥN kp vDv qp ok DO MDGN N C
lC OD Do oz pv qC l Dh CokCpF C ,PvC kh pv
kop C iN CpF koCk Co DA l l (vDv) CpC pv
CpC ok C qC WN CpF Dh oDiOC F F p nhD Co CpN oDC
F h pk O . pF Co oFD oDC oCW Doߡ
WCk DF xoDJ ok WCk Cok ok oCk kD F . PvC DFq A DGk
: O jvDJ ok . lCh pN oD pDz Co OzCk SeF pN C
F onF HϮ C qC loCk ϷN PpF DV F lD Dw
Z F ϷO lvpJ Ch Dz qC P A lF jvDJ Cv lZ
o߮v oCr D GOok. PvC ok D pG: lvpJ . PvC O
pN Co D h oNDNA: kCk jvDJ ?CiF Co GO A CN DA PvC lz Oz
DC O . CiF Co A CN PvC FDv iC vo DF D Oz A Z kCk
h F D oDRA F x J D q ok : O kCk CkC . CiF CN
FDv k D F : kCk jvDJ ?CiF Co D A CN DA PvC kV C kh
p N jvDJ k C qC CiF CN DC : O . CiF CN pnC
Ozn qC Co Dz h CrC pN DF oCn oNDNA kp F Co A D lz
qC CiF Co D h CN Pط C Cpz F kp ClV DOD
Dܷ , kz lCh CpF pC yoDzC D D Oz pǡO lClh
? Co DA Dܷ N DA DC . wF Co DA CN kh Co A
A DWC ok ? pN D kF CpC , F kh N C : O phDF. : kCk jvDJ
CokpF DF CN Co D C qC Ow D DN p . lz PDv pN WCk
VDN d Cܵ F ϵF oCr ݡV . PzCk FDvoz qC lz kCqA p
ok W D oDRA DA . lCiF lCN Co C oDRA D VDN kz Op
Dd ? PvC PCp FD CoDiF lpv ok ko oDRA DA ? kz lCh W
Co D A oDRA lCOF l oD lDF kh l Dp C oDiOC F DA A
C lCh CpC ok lDG DD Pk D P C ߥh ok . lF lCiF
ok krC pF Co D A FDO HN Cpq , k Uph F HN CoClD
oDRA lCOF kp ߡN lDF F lvo Mld F CN rp FDO HN
F D P D Pk C DF vDv DkohpF ok DvDO . lCiF Co DorF C
D N lCN vC .PvC lz VN pO PvC pO V P GV
qC Co kh Pp DG CpC Pk Z "C Cpq lzDF GN DpF Z
v N yo C ,lCk vC G Dd Pk DN Co kh OwCk vC
C ok Co FDv oz DV lCh CpC kz oߥN kp kDWC Co vDv
slC oDN DF PvC Oi p CoCk vC - "DDR . kpF Doߡ
q HpN lCk pD Co CpC Dz, DA qC F Od loCk
koA kVF pN z hCk p F A CoClϵ Cpq Pw pR ClZ
kV F HGeN DF HpN . z p p F lvpF Z l kDWC HpN lCN
loCk C Dw kDeNC qC vC Dzk - "DSDR . oD llN DF lA
lDF C k C DF kohpF qC EDOVC CpF Cnϵ , lq Ck Co MDOhC
A . Pw lF p PDi FD lzDF op P pF D FCo DG
CoD oDRA lOwCN lz hpN HV D P C ok Mp C D
lCiF Co .... W D , kClF lClW , pG lC W a
vC oD qC e Z , lCiF Co EkC DorF qC p oDRA Z
o߬ F Co D A CN PvC p lF l ClJ vC Cp, PvC
þ CrC p qC kp DdC Co vC , lD vC p F Owp
CpC P Co DpO o D Od OzCk uǷ pRC PvC "DDdC
HkC ,d ,oD ClOFC lDF þ C CrC qC G .kqDv rrO , PvC p
.kp EDiOC pv FCo Cܵ FCo uDz vC

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