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C ok eN tJ ,kp PGe Ep p ok q DDV F VCo
tJ F DzpOF Z pZ ?CpZ ,kF ǡ oDwF kG oCzk qC Dh q
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F kle DCpV o ok CpC ܷ vDv CpC DF CpC vDv

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l DCpC
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PC DC PvC e C koi pz CpZ l DC .loiF
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koCk D Dp ykh p ClN ok CpC C ;phA C DDi lF
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Cp CpC F DD d vC F Pww Owi .koCk oCp Cl VDN
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wN iF k F ykh P ok Co CpC joDN kߡ W ok DC ;߻d
lk lDF Dd Pww qC xJ CpC DqDN d vC FPwwqC J CpC .kp
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DV okokDOVC MCqDOC ;CpPd PvD ,CoAVPvD,ClF
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DCpeok lkplq pD DG EpCpCrVGzokuoDXhwA
CܷF AqC lW Ap Co CpC ok p Pww qC J Cok A ;llhpZ
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Co PDV Cok DOVCMDGvD D ;PvC lW Ap kh Cok Aok
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C F koh Co ykh ١h koCk PvC Ddok A [r ] .kߡ
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C Ck [ C mC F Ck Cp CpG ClDz DvoC DC vpCDC D ]
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qoChqDN G O lw EDOClOFC l DeCeOC EDOok pF
oOvklF DzCp J DF Co oDkA kp FCo C CpF kpfOCo
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lϾD D pGk qC EDOA ClFD

oߡ F lW EDOA k l

kz D D o N pC lzoh

Dz l l Mߵk ;DWC lBF lOpDGOzC Co G Co .lOpDGOzC Dz
,kߡF xF H Dv oClk DN PGe GF Co pl lDF
o Ovk ,lpk Co xFkߡ lCpJ DvCo ݬDF qC CzC A
l lD lvp xFO .loBF lvpF ykh AqC JCo OiNll
ro C PvC Gv C .lDykh PiN o Co DC PvDWA OiN
OiN qC Co xF Dv ok rpF Co DVoDǾC C DA lDF D F C CpF
.lD ykh PiN o Co DC koB ykh qC J Co OiN .l r
Ap .lOw
()ClGFCle o qCJ Dv lDJ oCr F ϷO Dv
h DDz lF pC vo o qC G Dv lDJ oCr F ll xCpo
uD PvC C DGC Pv lC kp v PDV MDϱ p F lC lzpe
k C kpƧp Pv qC Co C ,PvC D N k C .lzDFA Ph
õ ܷ PwZpk D N k A DC.pk D ADDF PvC lW Ap qC
koCk MDN CokC õ qC C D rZ A DF o߮F õ DVC
DV DqD DF DGC ok DdC UCpiOvC ܷ õ Pw P PvC cԮC
ok l wN Ovk kF Co MDA ykhAp .PvCCõ .eN Ddok
[MDF PC EDOC C C MDe MDA ]CpصA ov Ap vov k A
w kpF k DdC ,F CiF pk o߬ pC DF qC pk
PvC MD PvC Clh DF kp FCo l N PvC MCkDG PvC
DkCkp ,DOVC MDGvD ܷ PvC DV ok ok kp FCol N
eN DOVC DkCkp C ;DOVC DkCkpvo Cs Cs F ܷ DOVC
pnJD pN iF C PvCpWeN DF FDNokeN .PvC eN okDq ZlpnJ
. PvClh DF DwC FCo ܷ PvC MCkDG iF lk ǡN Co k ppV
oCr k PvC Po k qpC kF Po k fG qDۢJ DvlDJoCr ܷ
N MD DC .kz ߵ b C .lzDGPo k pkDv
.l ClJ eNDV Z l ClJ eN C PvC DV ok kCpC FCo l
.PvCDq DOpF DOVCDkCkplNDdC UCpiOvCܷ õ
kp O ܷ .kplN kz P lOWqC z þ ok PvC k F
Co qo qD lDF Z .kpص A d FD kߡ pk ,kߡ Eϥ d
lA C FpDC h l D .PvC pkk C e ܷ .l CokC
Co PvC xW v P ,lܡF Co D v DN yp pvCpv ok kCk Dp
ECpz F lGN lD ,Dok N lrpF Co w ph oCr XJ kCk oOvk lF
,llpF jF qC CoOvCPeNpok CooCDOhokDNkCkoOvk .kߡF
klwCoDh DpWJ DN P ;lPvok ECpz DADF lloC DC
p lp pF Dh qC Dq kCk oOvk .lOB peD q F D kA lkp
koCl qpC F DGNoC Cpp pWeN llD DzxJ .Hz F
kCk G ;vC Cܵ F lk DF Dk oD z ok DoOvk
DF vC P kz ;lrpF Dok F Co w ph o Cr XJ l pC .lz
DVoDǾC vpq koCkClD Hõ pWeOr DAC PvCDi w
DzqoC rN OA vC D ;DOwFp ok ;lA Dk F DW ok vC ;lzDG
;ph D kppk Co PDV DzqoC lD Dd .PvC PDV
DOwFpokOz lqDF Co PpOC DzpCC Pwo߬ZDOwFpok D
Dq CpF oDz pv CpF DqDv oD pq Pp إN DOwFp Pk
F UDOdC koCl P q DOwFp ok q qpC ܷ .l okD P pF
oDz pv CpF l okD CpF C pN pC .lzDF OzCk P pF
kp ClJ eN rp DV ܡJ C koCk DV J Z ?CpZ .lzDG
D Dp DoDlk qC kz D DGD lkqC qF CpC ok DC .kpPD
xVDF Pz FDO J Dv DWJ wCpok ,oCFk v Dh kߡ
A DC oߥN lF .lA ok k IDZ qC CpC okCphC EDO C ,k
Co CpC q .koCk DJoC q p ,O EDO C ok q FVCo Co GD
lDF Dp Dlk qC. kp D Dp Dlk qC lDF Co CpC q OhDz DC
DwC oCn yqoC DG ;P vC vC pV Dp ok .kCk oCp vopF ko
xJ ;Pw G ,Pw DFq ,Pw PvJ o ,Pw kCt ,Pw PwV
.PvC DwC pV PCpz A ?PwZ
PkADFq F lF iv lzDF p p /// yDF kA Pd F
FD q F Dpok kz O kCqA qC PGe ,llC Dlk C qC Dp
Zܷ ,Pw Dq Dp ok ;Pw Dq kz Owp D١Z F kp
vC FkFpǿO 첵 orF
lءCkƦlzh .PwDq
C GF loBF Co C DA P .OzCn Cpe F pv lz Clz
F kF D D D Z .kߡ koC wV FmDV HF C kp pǾ Pw
lA pdءZok ,ClC취 ,D vlkq lkoA Co .kFCpPwV ;q
pNk C qC .F PqF lkF JCqC DV F CpdDqpOAd F
F ϷO kp DF DGq h. q F Co D DCp PwV D kpDF
: DOw ok PwC lv

DpJ W lz N r

N h Co P

                                                 Oo lz Ck lz zD o߮C lk W Co N

Ow W N ZyDh P

Ow rC N DFh pk qC

pv DN kp lD eN lDF W ١Z aok qC C P kq H
A qCZ Cq A qC q F l D Cq C qC DpkzoDzA NpF C WN
koCl Co pC Z lvDzlD lCN oCFk v Dh Cq

DpJ W lz N r

N h Co P

Ow W N Z yDh P

Ow rC N DFh pk qC

Co N kF ph F D k p

CpN kF pC W lk

;loCk ϷN Dq Cl F Dz Pw , Pw Dq F PvC Dlk F MDN xJ
.oCl P q DOwFp ok qpC .koCl DGNoC G Dv oCr k D lF Dv oCrk F
ok DC , CoDv kp D lk qC lz lk DCp PwV Dlk qC F Z
(Parite)OpJ ,lzDG pFCpF qC pNDF Pw (Egalitarisem) ODC yqoC NDGDp
l fN ?Zܷ; DOVC ok okqCN DF Cp ,pFCpF ܷ,Z ܷ ;PvC
ok lCh xC DA wCp ok C lDpF p ;u o߮F DOOlh
w kz lpF DC qC ;oCk Ho lPpz pq Pwi MDFDiOC
pq k lEDiOC pq PwF lk ǡN CoyCFD lB kߡ lpF
Dq kClN F l Pvok Co ykh DhMoCq FD lDF pq p q pq k kp
MoCq A ok PvC wkpkClN D F lOw Dh MoCq CokoC w
DiNoCq xo kp DA lzDF lDF Dh MoCq ok kp q kClN C ,Dh
pCk xo PvC kp pCk C xo ph ;lzDF ypNpvDiNoCq ok Dh lzDF
C F;phAC PvC q pk pCk D PvC kp pCk C D ;q pk
qeN v xJ DV Pp q m lzDF C
(Parite)OpJ l
kD DS voD EkC oDRA ok .lzDG aC DDV CpC p ok q .PvC
J CpC ok lCq o oDF kD Gv Cl . koCk kV q DDV DF CpF
[Phk F] DODA F l Pvok lFD CpF PvC q ܷ .PvC DODA;Pww qC
D Phk F .l yoCk FCo CkrCoC [orF F] ,CkrCoC ܷ F ;l O
GCp F Hz lD D ,DODA D ,PhlF D Phk F ;lAvoD EkC ok DODA
FDN N F ykV D okwdCp Cߵlzoh ,lz߻ pǾ pm F Pw
 EDOA PvCwƽoD (Pw lk EDOAqo ok) lBF EDOA MpC Hz F.lAok
.llDHz ok Co

qClC ED oq pZ pOhk oq

lDF EDOA MpC Hz F

H DaA kߡ pǾ pm F VN GCp ߻ l Hz
Up q qC kߡ Dh o lvp PCo F ykh ܬDF VN ok kߡ
Ep lzoh C e F lD oDOv kߡ DvA D F kp l
C .PvCDvA ok oDOv pNo pJ l hok F pz oDOv C l
kpv Dv DGz k ok .PvC CpC p oDN pF q DDV ;PvCorF kD
. l o ykh o F CoDV .lhokpWeN Dϱ