( C iF) vkp DDz A ok v߬ vkp
xoDJ - DqA lv pOk
v p kp F pD oDd PvC oDF o oCk DDz
DD߬ DF QkCd ٬NqC Co lzVpdC lCpC p
VD CC p D DVDN lܾN D v ǾC pF DDh
ФC߾ qC pnJD on lv Moߤ F ZoCk. OzCk uDJ Di oD rOv D
lv Moߤ F Z p kpCkp q fv pF D p qC Od ok oDwF
Z p kpCkp q fv pF D p qC Od ok oDwF ФC߾ qC pnJD on
١Z k DF DC .lD Oz ok OFC qC Po OdDv F CO , PvC lo FD
A CokC F okD lF CpZ Pw DDz Dk oCk DzDN F CO pv
EzA pJ Co oDZok F qp C joDN D Dܾos F MpF pv qC lDF .Pw
ok wd DF Co pGOv lv C pnJD h lO Dv COF DN , Pwp Pzpv
ol A . PvC oA Pz pz pRC vkp DDz lkpN F .k x
vDCFC kDOvC ܷ A lDF pZ lqDv Dv yCpAPz pz
. PvC lDzJ p CoClOvk DlCh kq Mpd ١Z qC Co v߬ vkp
lF DooDF PJ ok o gD C oDط lqDv ul oCk
qC lDF Co vkp . PvClD lzJ Dp qC Dlv DDv ylqCp DoCk
DaA DDz CpZ Pw DvA v pC C DC . PhDz DDz h
lDFo lCh qC Pp PvC Ow lDFo lD rC pev ECnV
.ll A lqCkpJ lqDv F VN DW Co C
DDz DOhDv
e ok xJ . Dh ܷ PF .koCk PF oCr Pz A lApv O F DDz
q p ok D DJDF PvC C Dh p lz DF DhoCr Pz DDz
D߬ , qp q PvC oCOvC PFԤ pJ DZ A .ԾC os ok D oDF
fD DF PvC vl DgD C lqDv . lDvp pd F lr kDF lN
l lǾCJ DF lqo P pzoDط C ٲ lJ F p
vpKFkh qC koCk DVxJ .PD CO A CpF DVp EkCokDO
nhC Cvol DˡCk Cl qC Co kheN qC PCp Cvl Z C
MoD Z C .lz PFpN kDOvC Clkr lChuok HO Clok .k
C DDh D pC DC .Op Cp OhA DWok qC Co p ok pZ
.FD PvkA lqDv F PGw izDd cpz F , WOwV Co
iv khlq CdC MDrV qC kG hp J ok ClZ CpZ
r D . kp D D P Oiv pJ Xo qC DN .PvC O
ok Co A qC lC qClC ١Z kq oD Co NClO Dk pF OiA kpJ qC Cz
ok DCh DDz DCpC CpF vkp Dv .PvC kD CpD oDCpFCpF
DCpC yok DOvk Ovo DDOvCkqCA .PvCi MDDFC zo Dv
kppJ Co DDz Dlz DlChm D DZ Ovoz .Pw
Cܵ F DN Co vkp DA HD lDz OzCn vkp F OhCkpJ CpF DW
? Pw vkp DC .lvDܡF Ovo DCJD
: DDz D iw ok eN
F lzkD DZ Cpq. Pw DzC qC Dh vkp MDd fCv vopF
F PF kq ok oDF OvlN pJ qC PDz oDFok rV kh CdC
Co lCpv Dv zo Dv CoC OhCkpK kpGF Co C D A lF ypwJ p
C߾C ok lC lC oDFok GD pk HDV qC .PvC kCl oCp kh UDA
.loCl kDOvC PFD lDC DwC DF OiA ol F r OD z D
WOwV Co lA pv lF co uDǷC kpv A ok A rV ? PwZ oDZ xJ
F lZ D NClO lDõ pOwF ok yoCorF Piz PhDz CpF
vpOvk DDz qC C iw F lDF Cld Z CpF DC . oCnF J
jvD p A ok FD , lzDF к F oDq F A zDF OzCk
kV C iw Z Dok .lzDF k vpN Co kh lDõ pߥN GND
(p pW 614) Dv Pwk qC F pDzDq DF xCoϾ iw ܷ DDz
Oo W C ok lCO DkpGOvk oDwF Dv Pwk p ok koCk ϤD
WOwV ok DDz qC DiF pN . DvCph EzA pJ DC ok Dh ,lzDF
qC F PvC D iF D,lB oD F vkp Piz ok tJ
h DDdC pDz MCkDOC DF Cpq?CpZ , PvC Op oCp DpN D ط
,DDz l D ok .koCkoDpv PvC Pd OhDvص oDǾC MCkDOC
DV Gn MCkDOC o qC Co kpJ z lC u߬ lVoC kDOvC DV
Pvk pOF DDz Pwi D e MDFC D ok ܷ OzCkpF kh F
qC hpF lD) kkqD Co NDFC HO CoCkpF iw . PvC Op Moߤ DqClC
PF oDZ lD ) lC krC D ( O D MDFC lz DJ lzCpN Dp
PDhk ( PvC lz krC O MDFC zDdok lz pv h oDZ cl ok
ok Hn v DGO kF kDq ol A vkp MCkDOC EZoDZ ok v
DODhk vkp MCkDOC iF ok ol F CpC pF DCpd pv Cok
D Dl lz z v rOv Cl , 鷮 pvCpv lC k ld qC F
ok Co vkp iv D lC OD O ok kh MCkDOC h C lC NDGND
. lC OhCkpJ MDFC OvD krC ok lC OzClJ DN kh EϮ lDN
,lpG Xo ߾ kpzpF D qC DC lCCp CpC ok JDZkVDiw
mohl) s iw qC MoDG kpkD DDz IDZ qC CO DA V qC
wCp DiFDO h iw P uDvC pF PvC wCp
(jules
s qC F.PvC lvoIDZ FxoDJ ok1878 ok pk h iw PPwF
lw 1829ok (Turnaer Macan) . pp eN wC p k
Co klO D iw kp ClC DOvl ok DDzIDZF
1811ok(Lumsden)
ok s .kkF kCk oCo CF ,kF882 821 DDv h D iw DA C
C DC ,koCk Vo
oDzC CCp DtJ " " F h DDz l
oDzC ok CCp D r DOvD kDq oDwF DeC MDFC CoCk D iw
kDOC FD k r D sC MD PFDO Dd ok lzDG lCpv ϤC
pN 취 kh kDOvC ko D iw qC lص F" A pF Ե . lOw
D D ko Od koC hpF ok DZ .kCk oCp
971 DJ iw Cܵ F Co
k ok GV MCoDOC vN s fe DDz.koCl DGC pl DF MDFC
CpC ok D lF iw VCp MDeN MDGN oDJ lF wz Pz
CCp JDZ DkCpC apd ok Pk l vC F Dd ok . PD oDOC
hpF ok OiA ok yDOC MpS krD D o߬ F A pF
D D , s qC xJ .kF kpF Co MDFC kD lz DWFDV F OdkoC
oDOC F s ppN OwD DG pF
1877-84 DDv ok DAup߾
ok hpF DiFDO vN DlF iw C PhCkpJ DDz qC llV iw
p lV XJ ok) hpF IDZ o߮F . PD oDOC
1315DN1313 DDv ok CpC
( Pp DWC w lv dp z F phA lV k ,lV k pF O
ok JDZ dD DkCpC PvC pO D CoCk pp qC GVIDZ F PGw
ϵ DOwp vDz pz wv A qC xJ .koi ١Z F pO A
F (k1CN1950 DDv D ) Ml ߬ tJ DF oz pDVkDeNC
DG kp ClC z weClG xNpFC p pq lV 9 DDz oDOC
.kCk oCp ( l F ϷO) p pW
675 Dv ho h iw Co tJ
V pOk z F DpA ok DDz
kDF vN DDz qC llV iw CphC
iw Co h klO D iw ltJ A ok OD oDOC Ϯ ODd
iw l1276/ 675 iw, xCoϾ DiFDO k1217 /p pW614
iw39DC F pD1341/741iw, kCp1333/733 iw,GDOvC1330/731
ok( PvC pW k p DDJ F ϷO C iw DA pNllV)pkh
D VpN F Vo V qC pk HCV PDo jw vopF DF Op wD
F Vor Fp DFq F(
624615 DDv D) D迤C vN DDz
D DqolC
DJDJ piNoC DoD Cpq oDNDClD DDz ϤC FD
FD iw qpC DG C pF . PvC k ClC MDFC oߤ iN F .. J
Dv F D lCO A qC kDOvC DF PvC tJ C Pvk ok C kDOvC
MCkDOC pv h F DV DF lD WOwV C pRC A ok Co DDz lA pv
.lDF O UpN C DV ok lkp DzA lC C