OhDܡDwC OhDzDV D kDz
DϷDv C Pط Dp- z HO ok
DϵDo lFDN weDv UDd :
DN - C - cpOk
(social Reform) DOVC cԤC d DkC (function) D kpoD qC DWA qC
CoCv C ClNCoC Fkh CC CoA Dok
(societal Transformation) DV eN
OiDp CV ok d Mpd Ddo PCl D Cl DN ,lzDF k
wv C DorF qC pOi MDԬC CoC DF DN lz pDd D ok loD.lzDF
lFDN weDv DA UDd EDVCoA p t F DA ص MDp , V
OhDz DV iN DkDz EDF ok , h oC Pvp lZp,Co DϵDo
COhDz DV iN cpz Co pF .lD p, Dp ND, Dߤ
" OhDz DV MDFkC" ok ط oDOwV oDZ cp DF wv
pF Ե D lz Wd qC rpJ PDo CpF.kkplN
(Literature sociological)
C DorF OhDܡDwC OhDz DV pFDN MD wD ok oC Pvp MCoDzC
D p wv C DorF OhDܡDwC vDz DVok ClO MDp wv
DV MDFkC ok cԮC D D pm FDN , vDܡDwC vDz DV ok ClO
. PvC lz lwF Ep OhDz
OhDz yo MD hpF
MD F PGw ص Dp d Pp DD -" ϵ" Dp vDz cԮC ok
ϵ C .lk Pvk kz zD p qC DN - PvC C MDA ldC
C FDN PvC pF PhDz o߷z lzo dCp phA D k PpD
r " l ϵ " D oߩd ϵ " DdԮC Co ϵ C . PvCCkh F Oi
D . Dz DN , PvC d MDA DV F Pp " Dp" D Pd ok ,lCh
kpF H Dok D qC ,l yro DF qC PvC oDFA S d ϵ" .l
pRC ok PvC OG , Pw eN F UDOe pk ,ϵ A .l yro DwC
.l yro k ok C ЩN

lz uol l qA Dw krغ F

Pz h Pp HOF oD

ߡ izpF p A qC r oC Dd PvC lClh Pp d ϵ
,lDp DC H pF PvC G PDܵ F OwF A kkp
: , PvC zlVrD

yF CN Z p G ok

lk z F D Z p

lF Clh F FCo PvC DV rp k O . N ,koCk DV k ok C ϵ
FpWN"DdԮC - k Pp F lvo PV yN FpWN" PvC ϵ rp k A
pnJ oCpN PV ϵ PFD Dz . PvC op qC qC Op D" kz" D" z
pw ص Dp WCk GϬ D Dv CpF Dq , ϵ D kCk Z
Cl DN , lzDF k k pF w Co DV ,lzDF kp oD Mpd VO Co k kz
p qC ϵ D kCk Dd C ok .lzDF lz"lA ok Ozp ,ko pF Z k"
DF NA z D F ,kkp ߡ iz pF C MDA DF GdD DF lD
aA vopF, GdD , lD , xJ... Pp lhok o߬ok o P iv v
Co Cpz lOw kV kz FpWN ok D ܾ , lz C Ozn ok
Pk D F q Co C kqA
Repeatidous omJoCpN VqC Validity oCFNC Reliability
DHGv Dz " r oC Dd"lClh F Pp Dp C NpJ ok , PzCk lCh
r ϵ C qC DJ dCp ok.kz zo Dv pF PvC pS Dk C
lOvC D FpWN p qC PD Pvk ϵ wϾ Op D ϵ F CN
ϵ qC ϵ C .lz pm DWJ DOp ok A cpz PvC DqA
,lp pF lz kD ܾ pk lDqC r DA ,lOw Gw D" ߥd
C" :kp DOVC vDz DJ OhDz DV eN okDkDOvC D
F D- ߥd ϵ pC" PvC MDCpC F ԬC joCN lD qC xJpC
OzCk lF v F o" D PvC pv F pv" " vo ϵ" DF jz dp
D ߤC ok r D ,l d Ovok F khpFCo" ϵ" DlCN lzDF
F ϵ ZlCp ypOw lzo vpC . PvC lz koA, V õ EDF
,k ԬC CN A pF Pp D Ck D " ϵ" D pk ,kG Clh lF v
:kz kDOw A qC Dd r OzCk lF F , PvC V C D F F

Dd ФDd O A qC

D PvC pv F pv vo ϵ

D C-" e MDA" F ϵqC MoDG A " RR ϷC"( )vo Mpd F
F Fp oC DWC lvo Co D Pv r , - PvC lClh F Dp Po
,lp oCp ϵ CC kCl ok r Gw ߥd ϵ . PvC d Dp
h F DwC h PvC ClF," C C v" MoDG " kD p" v
Pw Z p F D PvC C C Pp DWCpv PD ,kz lGN C
: iv pk F PvC Щ þ F , Pw ϵ
Mld F d ϵ . Pw ϵlF ok Clh qC kpGF MpS p F Co D ϵ"
F ݬDF ok DC ,kpF ϵ DGk pD F A . DWC DpS ϷC :lDvo
pN Cp , lzDF ϵ J ok pOF Z p ,lvo Co kD F Ovk ,lzDF Dk
...lD OvCoA Co pF ok qC ϵ ...kz
DOVC l
prDF
k vDz DV k vDz DV k vDz DV D tqC
kCk D uDz DV Dq DOVC Cpz l ,kFlCh r RadicalC o
C DGdDPw DoDF C qC J . PvC DOVC Dkok Dok cԤC DCo
wDok DVok MDO D OCl F pOv , CkD pFCpF ok Co HO 
lFDN weDvUDd DA dp D kDOvC yo Dt qC . k pm 
oDRA ok MCpF PvC DOVC l Pϥh PwF oD r kDFD Dϵ Do
P w DOVC- vDv l kD qC pq . kz lk DC 
:lw FpDOvDv qC w lN MDClC ko ok .kF DC Dq 
Pk DeC e D F C e VoDiNoCq p qC 31/9/20 joDN ok DZ..."
,lkp xW lN De F Fp DkCkoCp dԤC DNpJ F DDz
oC DC CpZ koh uwC , kp HWN lz Co pGh C O
p qC lzDF DOC F ClF D lܵԬC F vC C qC ol C D P
"lF v F hC kDw qC pV P cԤC v
Cl ݾ
vCF , Ow D , kz PhDz yo F kDOC rpD XDO V qC
MpF PvC vCF Ow lǾC p lkDF . PvC PC oCpOvC
C OhDzyo PwF oD pFDF.kz PC qC Pvok
ܾ pO qC Cl ݾ PvC
Naturalistic DCp PGpF pGN F D , DCp
F Fp ϵ ok Cl ݾ . kz OhDz HO C ok PhDz yo D
F ( vo p DO D DܡvpJ ) vpJ GdD, lD Cp kDD p
Fp ϵ ok ,kߡ ( OoD GdD lD qC ٵC ) OoD MDD t
E tics DCp pF vDz yo qC lDN DF ܾ D qC HvDN F r kD pF
lDCN DC D D pv ok t F Co yo C PwF oD . kz Op pF
MClD ok C D qC SN D , qDv DS FDN D - qDv FD .k
kp D kCk yoCr ص D ODN ܾ V qC DJ lDvo CpF Oi
.kz lk o߾ F , PvC DC oDRA ok OhDz
OhDz DOwC MD hpF
DOVC FDO FCo , DV , DwC
DwC -C
p G lq PV ok - NDd p pF Ե PvC kV DN DwC
MCkV pk pF DwC 쩿N rN HV PvC Co p CoCk - kz
pDv qC DwC qDOC".l ClJ DN N , XolN F V lq lCp ok lz
, PvC MDCd pDv lD lN C qC k PvC F DDJ pǾ õ F CoClDV
D DN OGC "kkp rC C Wv DDJ kp J C pǾ N F
FlDG ...": PvC DN d Dp x Pp F DN Op J C
D A qC lFok Co kh P ,lD kh kV UoDh pCo pǾkqDwF qClC
: lD DN lA kh F F ,lD p PvC

" ܬ D phA p DWF

kF Z pF lA , C lA DW qC

pF " - lzDF r DV CoCk - PvC DV e - NpF Ե DwC xJ
,l oCppF k N D p d C vC DwC " pǾ" xJ . PvC" k
HV Moߤ A p ok ,kp PCl HV,lzDF lz PCl vC C D p
kp yN F OwDF koCk N lzo DwCok" pǿN" xJ .kz kp Cp
oCp DN v D" C C pv" pw ok DFo kDOvC ClCo DCo P
Clh o qC OA D DwC kz w lF pF k , lAok DV Plh F N DN kp
oCp DC PFpN PeN F , DN F , PvC kh Pzpv w DwC .kkp
,kp P kD Ow Mp ok lClh ClF , Co kh DV kh DN kp
D OwDF kp oCp Pw б ok CVok ϱ l CpFDF.lk DDv
Co CDC p qC PDC D Dz lF D , CDC qC PDC Clh lF
Co Co C DC DGC ,k Co C CpF pGCo Co WOwV lDF xJ" .lrpF
Co , kF oD kpoClF CpF ,lCOwCk Co Co zN lk Co A lF EhkJ
lC C ClJ qDA . lA pF DA oOvk F oDOo kl ok lDF .lC kCk D Co DZ
PvC C W DwC" iv pk F D ". PvClh v F v qDA F ok
lF CpF DA lD lz lpA C ok D e F MDCd MD
pǾ ԷF ,lD k Co Xo HvA l DvA HV lzF kh N Dqkv
CpF lzDF kh x pF wkoCl ClOC ldokCo MDlCN koCk õ
...koCkC oD F Co DA co pN
mC F ߥ DCo kDOvC P pGo ,kp Dq p kz pw C
AkVok PDwC Pp Pd D Pd" : Cpq ,lzDF OpnJ Co Clh
A ,lzkpok DA CpCok Z pCk C pCk rp lD . PvC oCorF
pGV D kC ok w DwC CpFDF"lOw VO C F , PvC Dv
kl F DN " PvC Pϱ o ˡ V Dok ,kh Pzpv lqDv , oDOhC
D C kC Fllz" oC C MDϲC uDC UpiO" F Q߷G Clh DC
 fN m cpz F A z pN D pN kDv ok oDOhC pGV Dw ...koCn
:kz
:Pw oDOhC F D oDOhC " lWC Dl "kp - kCk oDOhC D F lClh -1"
" o C PomC PoD "
DN pC phC MoDG F , PvC d kCoC PeN D oDOhC kCk oDOhC D F lClh -2
p l ϵ F pC , pGV F - PvC lF Pϵ - ϷC Pϵ DN Pϵ F p
pok kh HNCp ok Co ϵ PvC A pC F pC . PvC ߿N ,kzp
ϵ MCl DvqC OzCk p ok Dz DN PvC d MCm Co ϷC Pϵ pF
.kߡ PϿ r p
DV Pdok lF oCk ١Z S . PvC lF DC DV ,oDOhC pGV DS -3
F F CN xJ . PvC PA vC, ١Z ߩ , PvC
oDOhC .- ١Z vN F - PvC DV , ϤC lF .lGF ١Z
S .ClhqC PvC D qC oߥ , PvC kle o߬ lz kCk D F
, PvC ߩ qC kok Cpq . kok " " ,l kok" ءZ"
p qC , PvD kh vC F kz C D C ok ϱ . DV qC
D l uDvCpF lCN -kh DV OhDv ok DwC Pw C pFDFlClh
OGC A Dܷ , l DܷCo DwC DN N PvC pnJDrp Co lzDF ϱ
, o p F , PvCkp lFC Pzpv l N rhDOvo ok DV C ok
DOVC Mp ok DwC Cpq , PvC DV PhDv lApok vqC prD DwC
.koCk DOVC
Drive Cp D , PvC
ok , lzDF DOVC pz F D C PG ܷ , PvC GC l DwC"
"DF qDN" DV F CO D C pFDF OpoCp DOVC pF pF lq uDvC Pd
pm pF Dlq C ޤCqC
EvolutionismDNoC ߡ wϾok
- struggle for Existence
.... oFF DCo Cooporation Survival " DF DN lz
vC oDzC " DN" ФC ," pwKvC" Cp PG DN p l ب DC
oDzC -lkCk oCp Cp kCqA Cp DwC HND DG Co A DGp DlF ,koCk
Z CzC.kCo om
social integration DOVC DWwC p DG Co A , kp
lCk DOVC kD Co kCDh , phC DvDz CV CNVC vԾ ok
DOVC" Cܵ F kCDh qC D, PvC oCOvC A pF DV D DF
G ľCN qC zD F, G o DN WOCo A ,lpF D" kCDh
FDN, Vq Pp C iNqC xJ lCk PppF OG ܷ p
.lz oD wN D kpoD PhDv C
DF DN p: DV - E
DJ pF kCpC p D l C qC ز ǡO W ܷ DV
DoA jv zok DV iv pk F .koCk oCp DF" qDN
cooperation " DN
, PvC DN D w C qC DO Dd ok lzkDlCp A
ideal type
"
 Fp ClءCk p DF pN C wD ,DwC Mp PG pN CwD
:lDp
uDvC Pd ok ,lzDF DOVC pz F D( DwC ) C PG ..."
ok "DF qDN" DV F CN D CpFDF , Op oCp DOVCpF pF Dlq
" pGF DCo"DF DN" lz pm pF Dlq C ߤCqC"DNoC ߡ wϾ"
:koCk i Dܷ ФC C lDp xKv
lCN DAkV lF ,lzDF kh D lqDkh MDdok pF ܷ"
"...llF DDvpv lq F
lF k p pnJ ǿN Vok F Fp DV C DN V lz O D
DV p ok PvC lF k p C N lV D FDO FCo kD p kD
pNkDq C pǾ lzo Z p pF Pw z Dd pF": PvC w ߤC qC vDz
pNllz C pǾ PpdkzpOD DOVC Z p qDF pOF DOVC F C UDOdC ,kkp
ФC qC pk qC".lp l r q Pdok xJ.kkp pNkDq C DN
PG F pF iv pk F . PvC CoA fϤ" oDlD w"D"DF DN"
GϬ fϤ k F kF Crp VqC CoA fϤ F D oCh
k F PvC Op oCp p pFCpFok Ch PClD PCl wF
DV xJ .lC kF GϬ V F D" Dw DCDoC GϬ DV iz CpC"
Do߲ F": p D kDN. PvC kF ˡ kDN pok pF
pFDF ϲkh qC DkD lN ϱ qC pV PCl wFlD - õ
CpF" p pFCpF ok,"... PDwC Di vo kpF FqC Pvok DoDOolDõ
UpV O kClN ϱqC lzoCv kp kppF Dw DCDoC Cpk pF wN
oCkC DNok PvC k F Pvok . PvC OD lN"loCl OzCl D
l qpJ CpF oDOC qoA ldN pD ldN D lCok - CV ioDN
: PvC lz lk DOVC Dzp CV ok ϱpF
l kF d fϥ lzDF w o pO oC kp kN , o CqC"
Moߤ, DV F PGw qoA C .kpF DvA F o,lzDF Ozn DVokCokCk
o pO DOVC lAkGF lC DF Co kCpC, kpClJ
social(Ideal)T ypeDOVC DoA
vԾ DkC, D kD DV jvk C D kDF FDN" PvC kCkoCp eϥ
DV pOF oDFok D dpz PvC OhClC pǾ C FCo DvDz DV
jvD ϨD DV cp C.l p kp FCokz OhDv kp vN OwDF
ϵ ClءCk k DorF PvC OhDz DV iN qCqC Dv DV DoA
DV DF ϱ o CpF ColDzDN,lC Oz D cpz A oDFok DOVC
klok CoqC Clp DV CoClOvDv ClءCk.l Cp kD Dv
vC C p DdlD.lzDF kF ص CoA fϤ p kpClJ
cpzCo hC Dzo O ϨD hC ClJ CoqCCo pF D FCoD a
DF lkp O wd MDF A kCpC hC DV o qoA kCk
CoA D F FDO lD ϨD lCo AlOzCklkpF pwF D fϤok pl
G kpN C FDN lk D ߾ FDN". PvC Oz ϨD l C
.kp l FrCo DOVC lFp p dCp PvC DVok DoA
:kz DoA G k F pW Pw p k D kDN CpFDF
lzoCv kp kppF Dw DCDoC CpkpF wN CpF" : p -1
. D GD"loCl OzCl D cpV O lN ϱqC
ϱqC pV PCl wFlD õ Do߲ F":pFCpFok pk p-2
i vo kpF FqC Pvok DoDOolDõ pDF ϲkhqC DkD lN
.rOv ϱ GD:lz OW" PDwC
Dv DV" cp.lk ǡN CDVpokCo NDG ϤCkDN pk CkDN
DV ϤCoe kDN C ClwJClh õ d CpF PvC zN Pdok"
uDvCpF ߾ DOVC lFp cp PvC zo.kqDv Co klO vDz
DokCo yp C PvCoCOvC F DVD p NDG Dpv MDN
Mo߿Cp qd pǿO, xoD, kr, FCoD Z:ld pld ClzlC
.lk CN DkCo DvDz DV,
OhDz F lV
FvClZ lV PhDz F DC OhDz DV D pok p MDqC
DwC ZpC, ФC CpFDF .kkp pF" pC F pC" p F A k î Fo
vqC PvC G Co, p , DOVC Oi DlFl pzok pok
lV Pϥh k FDC,loCk NDGvD lV DGNoC qN DF lzkDk DN r
z FlCN DwC,kkp pF pF صok ( DF=) p C h F h
yNDFCo Cpz N v lF koCnpNCpDJ e MpzkqC DCppwN
O C, pD DCppwN pk pF , p pDF D CpFDF .l CpGVkh
pzDC, PvC Cpzok p Z pC DwC: lFD V pǾ D Cok
:lk DCo lzkD DDOwVqC Cl m " Pw Cpz
,pNlV pN yDFDoDokDGD A kp,lzDF A EA ȡh A C DVpS
Cǡh FA vC F DWAok ߥeqC kDOvC Dlq qC N Z
lܡF pOF PdqloGW GDF r kp, PvC pN ǡ q kGD
kpPpSC,lzDF CCp A EA E߬p A C DVp ,lDF pNkDq PD
CpFDlq C Dv N Z,lpN 鲾Dd pOz C Ovk F PGwDWA
ok Pk".loD HϬ DvADOG,lOw kDq Pdq F UDOe PvC DvA DA
p, DOVCpGV p PG lk D Fh F DC MlOvC
DpGV pFCpFok F,koCl DwCpF GDV N DC pok OizD,
p D Mop FCo ߾ DpGV k HvDO p˷pF, ߾ DOVC
.l CpGV kh yN FCo e DDNDqDpFDF ,lD lGN
Dv DV DoA jv cp
DC koCk C DVqC PDd z"kV Mld" lC DJpF DV DoA jv
pFCpFok D pOe,rr o FlOw DN d Mpd PA oDRA A
:l D.lzDF DV
Pÿz DF Clhl HwdpFlDF PV CqC,ld oDRA PhDv Pvk h DN"
Ddpok GFoD oClk ACo kzqDF k lkDN zF DFp
PvC Dܷ D C" zDF Cp Chph pF DF CiCo ldClFlDF
DV Dܷ Cok . kkD AqC" oDlD w""DF DN ФC" DDF CqC J
D pokDNlOw DN d MDA kp lz Owp Mld qClC ١ZqC
Co CkC F D CkDDN pDFCoDA PvC Dzkh oDOhC pFDF DA OpoCp
d F DA ϵ qoDGr Moߤ Cok .lk oCp kD p pFCpFok,lϱ
OGC PvC DC qCqC,lOw ϱ pǡok CkDDN" O N Od CND"
DV jvk C FDNok." OC"kp" ND":k p oDO qoDG
DGN HV AqC PϿ HVC A DWC
Function
kpoD .koCk C ߩp
kppF dl CoC kCpC F kpoD Plh k F DVCpq , PvC DV
OGC, DVCrVC pk DV F k Plh kpoDDF DN d C ,koCk kp
qC oD FlN CpFDF.kz ivDJ D kD G kD pok FDN F VN DF
DGNlF GN ". PvC ϱ pǡ D DqC GN oDF l pǡ MCqDOC
C Pط ϵ wv MCqDOC qC oD Hw F lN PvC DV d OhDv
kpoDFlk MkD oDF FCo DwC aAqC lDF":r"..... Pw kF( l pǡ=)
yh xDW F MkDlD.lrpJ,lzDF qClCpF DDh lvo ZDN,kqDv DV
vC MCoOvk DAlD d, DpN qDFD, D oD Epz Con
DOVC DVߩDkpp xJ" lz koCnClh lF CkpoD DJpF
F Plh Od,l pClh h F Plh PVokCo h DOVCkpoD
: ϱ pǡ DصC feN PVok PvC Plh r, ND Clh Dzk
,lD F lVDOe pl F lz lpA l GDF DwClDF"
DVpFoDF kFpJ lk DWC oD wp
OhA F PwCNDN....lzDF OzCl ج PzClءZOzCkDܻOvCClh F NlzDG
p , kp MWpF DA CpF DW k PD DNkhkDOvC p
PvC kp DvA A DWCpv kh CoCk CkDFA lvpF, kCk pNCokh
ok PvC lz Piv vCok PvC Hw FD k kqk ClqC
DvA" OwDF DoD DN DWCpv DV DOVCkpoDϤC l xJ....kplDF
ok NCoOvk"qC OwDF oC C ok OGC,llClh i Cpq.lzDF kp
DOVC DkpoD Dok"lqDWN lvo( FDO =) MD CpF Ppz
DOVCkpoDkz cp" kp DvA" D l DGkok DA pN ,
"lDp PvC m
pԬqC OhDw p uDG . pOvok CpkkhqC pV D"
kh CpF aA CpF OvCh ... PvC ص UDOdCko kDG CpF
".... PvC Vl F DlC , lCh
lCi DC ...lvp w F Dq ...l lq DA Dok.lzJ kplD DV...."
DF ...l E xwWN ...lzDF DlOvoD pOv zk.lk DC
oDZ CpF lCN pC.kkp DlC DA oDOp F kDz DA kDz ok .lzDF l
....lzDF CND DoCAoD DkrOv oD...koCl Co O v."kqDv yhCo DA kllC
DoA jv ϨD DV qC pGNok DkDOvC pqC DqCp , pnN phAok
lr mokCo lC kp CoC Ap qC pFDNpFDF Dv DV
F vC vl PDkokkoCkCo ClF lvo qoA lzDF A WOwVok pF aA
ClF lvo qoAlzDF A WOwVok pF aA. PvCkV C NCe
FCloCk DFh aA,PvCkV C NC e F vC vl Pkok koCkCo
pOD zDF OzClCo DdC lDF A PD,koCk DA qCpOF DN
D vlDDoA DA F l o weC F PWd Mpd l d fϥ
CF DVlzDF wϾ A lC Co ϨD llDzKF ص DV PpF
pF kCpC CpOdC Եko Co kCk l PvC Pvk fϤ kk qoA Co
kDWC CpF Cpǿzo vԾ DkC qoAqC Pwi DC,lD ص kDWC PvC
lO O iv PvC Ovk fϤkCk lpF OG DA Dv C DV
ص DF oD C A PD, lz DF pOp pOص vCok Mߵk C lz
.lzDF pnJ DWC C F"ЩDF DWCpv C DlDlClh w
MDp CV kGFok vC þ PwFoD koCqC 쥿N SeFDF iv CkCok DA
.lk D Dv DV Dt CpJok Co vC
MCDw kCqA: (kz Op Dܷ C jC..... DN EDOC C D AqC ...)
  pz D FD p Cpk F wN qCV l D FDok kCpCpFCpF
... õ yokCpFDF ϵ oDOo lD ...lq k A qC qC oDwF lDqpC
l wF F A C (kz kDOvC Z jC ... lDF pD C C A qC D)
F kp FlzDF kCDh p kDFA D DVokkh dCp okkCk
DC F F GqC DOVC kpkoC Dz r A ... DOvkpq
.... ph MDwv 鷿C D oC, CoDOp,
p ܷ.koCklClh pFCpFok DkCt DwN F oDzC( jC... Dh DC uDCDCD AD)
l ( ) ϵ ԺDF k hoDOo S.... Pwlv Dv DvkCt F
w F Ժkh CpFlph uDG Pp,.... PzCkkh CpJpF Ϥ
kDJ OJ DFlz Cl C Dv,kCk Ժ FCopOF qDFlph
kCpC l CO... lC C vole AqCD ),( F ߨ)kp Ppd
...oDCl lVoDwFkh pdqC Dkok .. DFpoDwF Dzkh F( OwDF DV
q yqC oCz D CrNoDJ DWV( D SlzDF ok F ϱqC )
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CkpOk F DDWz xJ. e kp DصCqC zD ,lCk CV w
: kqDN
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pk D"lrFlOw pþ oDwFkoC Cok DDF Ck F Pvk A
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hC Clþ pk, k C F w VN F DV pA pV PhDv
. PvC OhDz DV DCp pwN ypqC C eN C.kCpC D ok DOVC
DV DwC FDO FCo
p FDN D , kD MDr pFCpFok do C pǾ lk Pzn aA pFDF
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C kDOvC pGo PeN oDOhCDF, kCkrNCo Pϱo pˡk MDN, w
Col OhCkpJ kpoDD DWC C v F- kD DV DJpF PVok
.lkoCp PvCoDkopJ Do DD kpעDvAoCppF ϱ qClCpF PV qoDG
,Clp OvC DV pF d MDGRC CpF, C DWC DdC C CpVCok
DkpPDC PvC DOVC PDC pD , k p kF r q Dd ok
. PvC DV DoA jv ϤC qC qC DOVC PCl kCqA kz Ϸ DV
hCoA DFok r ϵ Dzk ( ) ϵ Pd DCo k D : kCqA C
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: k F
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vvDV pqC Dw F PGw r A V Cok p, OzClCo Co xwWN
....lz C ݱ vko zk CpF
Fok UoCh FlCh Gh D lWwok ok ( ) ϵ C pC
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MoDwV DO DN lzDFkCqAloCnF kp ,lD pF lWwqCDl
kCqAkh oDOok PhCl ph FCo w fDl ص D컬 F DA
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Dw F,k PF FoGW pص F ClG D FC FlvlD,lkp
fD h pF A p,lkFkCqA qDF x TzClDkF ϷDA D
r kCqA PCkClGOvC Ozqop oDFok pk DVok DC"loDOo ص
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oDz" l pC A F r Ap koCok lõ kF kCqA kCoC P
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DV Mld oCok MoD(Cpq) .... Co kClGOvC ChkhpF PvC
kF qC Dk ز k pN D ClOFC DZ . PvC k pND
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OhC vC , NDG DDJ lzDF DwC lpzDDJ
Social Differentiation
C p Ep F p k Co DA DSC DV MpR DFq kCt NDG
kF ߿ UCkqC ok, kCkoCp ko okCo A plv Dv, OzCn
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Co q Plh" DV d"DpFDF lCk w Co poD "....lzDF
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PwCo CpFkp qo oD CpF NpVClvo DpoDoD F"op"kz
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m 鷮ok , PvC C poD oDqC-
surplus value" DC yqoC Hw" pk MoDG F
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vClNDvC pRDN zo F DC G D ب PvC Dp N qClC ١Zok
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joDN MDpd
pJ CV k:koCkkV lzo ok v C DVp CpF , DC EDV pqC
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Ppd MoD Mph HDV F,ko MCp Fo NlDN PvC D pN ClOFC
PDd C pF lZlvo PvC ohok Oز pN UC F ADN,l
p lz ClJC CpF Dܾ phDF ,koCn Fm F o xKv ,koCk
Ppd C PvC MDCpC pF ԬC joCN lDqC xJ pC C.kz
C DCN CoC dpv
cyclical process CoklCp
: CpFDF. PwCk DVp joDN pGDlorVqC
lorV
(organization) D DqDv(states)DPd(Governments) kqC p CpF
PvC
(social flucuation/oscillation)rN pN(oscillation social changes)
(accidental) oD ok(Natural ) p G : PvC wklorV C
p G MCpN - C
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: lA op Ok fN DOVC Dpk MCpNqC w C fNok
Cr,koCk ok DtpFDF DOVC DqDvD Pk DVp A Pwi -1
.ko pNCpld AqCrط PvC Dh ol F A MCpN lzo Vok
lzopN.lC kp D"ohok" cԮC DFCo DOVC MCpN lzo Cr C
.lzDF Fp kp P PhDz F t F, pF ok DHGv FlCN ohok
P pN DVok DV DGi pGo dp phAok tF- A pk -2
߾ pDܵqC Clp kV iv pk F.lzDF qDv joDNlCN DV ص Pp
DOVC DDqDv DVD Pk p G pصlCN pGo t F
.... Z pCCpq,lD pNlFDpODNCo
r pDok pC DO, PvC oCOvC EC uDvCpF pN lGNpF G D DF...
lصPϵ lZ p,kz ClJ ( UoCl N ) OhC C CpF D Pϵ EDGvC
,kzCpVC pFlN vN F plN PvCC plNClh PvCh d HGv
Pܮv pFlN DN , PvC pN C CpF D D CoClDq PD
Z PvC pNok or Pܮv A,lzDFkDkqC F o D PFGe lC PvDv
pwN ok"kz p Oo FqC Pܮv A PzCn D Fo MDV C
pFlN F Fp Okp Pzpv pN kz O OwDF DkDOvC
CpFDF. phDl dCo D PFGe PvC OwCNDA PvC Pkkpص Z
p pz, DV kDOC DOVC DC kGF DOVC PvDv F VN ب
MDqC C.kz Ewe Pk DF D pO kp ľC pwN lDw
. PvC ( ) ϵ vC Dlkok OhDz DV DCp pwN qClC ١Z zo
kClho p MCpN- E
HV lF DoDF ok D DNC p k F MCpN qC Ovk C
qDv joDN MCpN Ck F rCo D Pk CV,kz lܾzokD OhC
HVpص Oi vok " p Fp p Pe" Z ϵ CpFDF ,lD
: A xǵpFDllJ Pe M AqC xJ Dkz lF MCpN
lz C oDwF,kz ClJ MDd A Okp pص CCqC pok Cn...."
vC F , kCk go FC lzoO oDZk DD Ok D Pز
DvkDG CpF DZ . PvC lz Np kq F A HdD PvD pFlN wd
pNC CpFDOk Pk pJ CC oO DCok PvC , lz C pWv
phA HvD Dz CpF DZ,kkppF kq F qDFlClJ Pز ,lk Pvk
DOVC MCpN lCp DV p joDN Z pC CpFDF"lz pD ߿ v
yp ,l Ppd i vpFDF ,lOwlD CV
 DOVC MCpN l feN cߨ FiF rCo O C k DCp pwN
khF HvDO DzC, pGo D OhDz Pp k pFDFlCN
F , CVkookDN ߾ DOVC MCpN DCp pwN D.lClJCo
:lzDF kD lCN r DkC oDFok
k MǡNok F ,koCl DOhC oߤ D Pܮv DDqDv F lorV C"
l orV pN HGv k p vDv lD pFlN l pFlNkoCk kV r Gn
DN Phl ߨ C ok r EC Dq DC CpJ DGC l DGCkz
oCnD A oDz Pdo"qC xJ ط r DkCok p MCpN CpFDF"loCk
lz pe" CD p DizC hk vC F CpJ VN"lk go"
C DDqDvokCo Owv oO prD F ,kz DNCkDeNC Oo FqC HV
.koA kV F k
OhDz F FCo HvDN
Fp lzkD D HGv F CpF Ե DkC qC Clp D DV p l orV
DGNoC ... , Oܤ , G , DwC D e , F Dh D t F,kz
kD DVp DzqoC DdC , C kpoD HvDN PvC lF .koCk OwF
.kFlCh k Pkp Dܾ D DF l A CC DNok OhDz F HvDN Moߤok
D Dq e DC OhC HweF ODk p C k DdC Ck DF"
jw PvC oCppF k ADFkV MDO DN ,kz Oi DizC
, HvDNkV DFlzDGkV HvDN e d F PvC jw Z ,kz
, CV p PhDzok A pRC vDz F HvDN PC EDF ok" Pw fe jw
:lDp pk DVok
Cq OhDzo CqC ,koCk pRDNkCpCok GDC PG e Z"
î pvDz F p PhDz DA xJ" PvCl Eh r G e Oi
:lDp kCl DOVC vDz DJ C PhDzok NDDoD qCqCCo

ok MDdo MDd F kpF J OhDz CpF e C DC OwCk xJ"
CpV OwCko C qC . PvC pR l
k CV lqDA
HvDNCpF lDN" PvC q F,l DOzn MDdopF ԬC CpF joDN
 FlOvDz DJ Cok DCDNkz HV PvC lV qN 
 ϵ V qC":lz A OhDz F HvDNok CpV joDN ϵ D hDz
 ClFkDq VN kpClJ pOF PC qpC , kF PC CoCk l qC qC  
q F Fp k Dq F Fp C PvC CpV joDN ϵkkp nG
MDdD DV PMDd DvDz Cpq .loCk iDz D MDFkCok k p PvC 
DC F .koCkkV kpDlq DV MDdo F kpF J CpF pRDN , DOzn
ok joDN DWCpv"kkp MpGHV DN ...lzDF Dlq CpF ġpv DOzn oDOo
lzDGi OwDz pGo kV DkCD CV pD GlorV DzC
pR lCOFDN lzDF Op oCp kp kN ypnJ Pp ko OwDF OGC
 DqDvDV D llV k Moߤ C pok ,kz MDW HV lCN lz C
PeN EnVkh okCo A lDDF oDRA lz l D DV UoDhD hCkqC DJ
C lk r p DlorVDOwv DzCok.koA lChok kh wN pv
OzCk kV vDv ClD DGi vN DC cԤC DOdC ط
kz Cok lzo D D Dz lAokkh G pv F klW DV DN
 DDOVC DqDvqC llV z FCo kh DV gw XolN F pJ v D
:lk go D CpGo kVDF HϺC plorVqC xJ o p F.koDKwF k
 vDvDGn lD p vN F NlqC xJ ,lk Pvk pD pN ok oO"
 DF lGN C C oO . OD C XllV Hn A l D kz ClJ
ܷ,kkp pD Aok G oO lvo PDk A pJ D DN ,kz
lDp vN pk PDk Cok .lzDG C DdC A O Dq DC
 h wV co cԤC lqCpF Td p qC vDv DOVC pGoD ) C
kkp p A Pkl jwCo FDv PDk , k o kF N Mߵk
Pw jw FD vC vl PDk rV,kp Co A DV llV PDk
" PvC Cpd PDDNC Cpd , d PDqo DN( )le d,
DeNok vDz DV MD pN qC kz O lDF ߾ 鷮 pwNok
laws and rules cultural p C DdC D HvDN FCo kpClJ , GO
(... kDOC, DOVC , G De CC ) e MDO
HvDN cԮCDF ,PvC
adjust ohok C FCo kVDF fnvironmental circumstances
FCo C .kpF D A qC CN r
functional relatedness - functional fittness kpoD
DFHNCp F
social order and equilibrium DOVC D ٲ Cpz pOqC
HV ߾ HvDN Clþ , Moߤ C pok.lzDF
social / societal survival DV
eN CpzkDWC , A p G zk pok , DV MCpN
.kF lCh revolution ECD reform cԤC z k p F transformation

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