(3 MD W) CpC Dp
k

H C A pF C z qC

kߥ Co P Dv Hz C ok

pF ٲ kCDh DC HDkDOvC ko MD pN pq qC" k" sC
Owi D C DFq ok o PC DvDܡDFq qC hpFkDOC F . PvC
Cܵ F
(Labial)" G" DCA A ok DFq D .lzDF OzCk lCN " pF
D p DF Cp xKv , Pp oCp DطOvC oCpN ko kCkoCp DsC
eO C D Gz G p ok lz lCpJ O DC ok lZ Z
OvC" k") DOvC" r " Ck" l DFq ok k sC . P NCpN
Ppܷ F
DHAYANA MoߤF PpwDv DJpk DFq okDHAYANA MoߥF
t F ) l ܬDF p pRDN DF sC C . PvC Oo oDF Kwk yo
Z F Fp l qC DoCk CkF pv qC xJ tF ok pz p pF( CkF p
DFJCs lFD CDC uJv
(TCHENN DF) Z DFq p koC ( Dz
UCo (JCs Zl Z) pz EV DvA DN ok lkp
ZEN N
p pRDN Pϵ F DV k VDDJ qC xJ
( ZEN )phC N DF PD
CkDD DpA DJoC pvCpv ok OwF p k h ok q Ep pF JCs
DOvDF J ok k . PD oDOC ok zD F FDOvk p ܷ F r
A ܷF kF XCo r lOzCk oCp CpC p p ok D ok D
. PvC yoD ߤC A Dܷ F " pFk k" MoDG S , lz Op oDF
, Ep DNp" DlN pF CpC p pRDN hClN DRC ok A qC xJ
Cp DlF .PD Co k pFp pGDDFq F lz GDFq okhk
F lz Ap DsC ok hCk Ep DFq ok hk MD qC pk oDwF lD
Dw kDOvC ko kDOCDOvk o߬F w A yo Co ܷ
ok A EDO k kpFoD" k" o F VN DF . Pp oCp rN
qCpGh (PvC vC lClh kr G Co DN vC Clܵ lC C) DO Clh
D Co .koCk kߵ lv F klCook kV MCom Ckpv
Mop pv C PvClJ . MCkV pV MCom MCom ok DJ Opd
oDOhC EDiOC Mol m ok kA dp o߬ F ok DC lF F
FDS F kA kp p.PvC A pF pD"lWC Dl "pz kp oCp
Moߤ F p PD F A qC PvC" D Dq" ok O C
Co Dz p . lzDF lCpJ C PV z ok DdC FD p DDz
Dq kle ok kA DC ,lD O v Pv FCo C PvC p
D DVp DWC Wv oDz F Cp C Pp PvC peO
FD PV , ФC pNvDvC , peOp Ppd EZ oDZ ok xJ .koCl Co DA
CpZ.oC MCwCpnV PVC :PvC C k p PV fe
.xF PvC Ow h þ l ClG D Co pNDN
.lFD o Mop kA oDOhC Mol EDiOC pC Pv DWC

PlFC ok PvC F r oCr l

PwF CN DW Moߤ PD Co Co C

lF t CpeC UDVߵC lF Ow PvCo Co D CqC C ok
Cܵ F " PkG" D kAkCpC qC kp p pV ok PvCo F D LZ F
D pV kGC " lz l DO Cܵ F " PFFo" ClG
Dd Dd ok F Ow Cp (vC C lܵlC C)" k" F FFpC
iz ok pC C pF pD C lC W ܷ" pCo yo" ܷ"
" Co" F h qC
()ߥ DZ ,lzDF r lFD o" DCo" Piz
Cߨ MCoOvk oDGOC F " k" ФDeC . PvC kp pN Cr (Cp)
pF oDǾC DصC fN oDGOC F( lC pz) lz cԮC Ppz F PvC
: PvC lz pGN lClh v F pv p F PvC MCoOvk A DG
Pp v pv qC iv loClJ Dw .lv Fo C pVD C
ok Z pC PvC l koA koA D lϾD ,koCl DV p pz ok
.lD pl qC Ow MDO kV HNCp
( 4 MD W) CpC Dp
Xd PDOvC
Gv C DOvC PGC Xd uDC ϵ
. yDF OzCk Co A PDOvC w A CpF , Dh Xd, kp pF PvCo Clh
p DC ,lz HVC Xd p pW D O Dv ok ߾ pz A r DF
kp qCpdC Co q pz D p kp qC p DZ . PDOvC F p C
V l Moߤ ok xǵ pF , kkp PGC Xd F lz Ow
D p ok .lD ФDd Co Xd PDOvC lGO pO b Cpz
D DCN DwVOv Z MDd pD DGVpF Dص PDOvC
lA q kF ul oDz p ko î Z pC . kz ԬC
oCp DXeC HVC Pvp uCo ok D HdD ClNpR ClC yopJ DDp
vD koA DWF Xd.koCk Mld D rN co DF DOd pC C DA DC . lp
. kz lCh" C PF" PvC D qC C ok Dq ok
OhDv PvC v qC ط C Dh , oFr vD Dh e D" G"
PF" G m . PvC kF Clh DlF qC ClF A DF F , Pw" Clh"
()
hCpFC DGCFC DصC pDh llWN Xd vD.kz lCh"CpFC
CpFC C kh CpZ l lq Co CpFC D DصC C DWC DF VDd . PvC
CpFC .lz CpFC CN kF F PvClJ , PvC ġ DDFp ok pk
qC lA C iz DN Hz qC DC .kD Dv l v ok ok Co Clh Dh DF
C p PvC Oo kD (kpCV) O F EDGz Cok ok C qC .PvC MO Ե
Owz CV Ϭok C kpCV PԵ Owi . lC lChDO dpv Co
PDOvC eNoߥ F CpFC kDkplq CpF wA.DOF , PvC DOF
. PvC Owz Co PF Cl DN lGF l oߺ kh ok lDF r ko Xd F
P?Co OvpJ MpR? Co OvpJ Mol ?Co OvpJ Mpz?Co OvpJ Mz PF
Dl DoCr Dl ?Co GϬ D?Co GϬ DV?Co GϬ PvDo?Co OvpJ
lCN Pw OwqlzDF lDDVpF PF OdpC ?Co pk PFoCr
kpJ pNDN D C PF F pv .ko C PF F CpFC pDh llWN P F
lDF . Pw Clp z F DC pD GD DصC DWC .Pw
, CV ok D PF Owz qC xJ h CpFC .kz eN A ܷ PDOvC
CokC F kp oG lzoh D oDOv M qC kD C C pv F l
lCi" MCv ϵ" kK Co v FoC oDvC w A .lz D oCCo
?PvC OD Co CpFClD PDOvC DA ,MD ,MD" kpG MDFCphoko"
Pv Do wN pG DN Pzn NA D ph D qC A qC xJ CpFC
lDF PvC Xd DصC"lD" w .l qA F C OFC o ok Co kh x
NNp CND pJ PD ok CpFC .lzDF OzCk Co A PDOvC
DN lz oD xJ . lqp C p F k D DvC lz lqp HdD DwV
Xd F h CpFC qC lD F VDd .lConF pv qC r Co pk H qA
Z qC oDV A .lD DFp C MD ok ġ DDFp okCo oDV DN ko
pOz D lD. PvC Co "Ck" xV qC? PvC G xV
Dlok kp DFp kpF Co Dlok Ckk CN DDFp ok .rF lܿv
hC Dlok Ckk OvCok ykV V w xJ .PwClh OpnJ
ClOF C C?l llWN Co CpFC Pv lCN Z , PvC wwh MD v
pGF p d J Cpv uDw CpZ Mz uph oD DFo lDF
pF yd DܤC qC Co kh Ow p koCkpF D qC Co lok p PoDGV
DصC F D UC.l eN Co CpFC lD PDOvC DN lD Dh
PvC A D D DFp l . l o qpF DFp vCp ok Xd vD
pF ľ qCpCpv Ozn oCzk DqA D kp D Gõ qC VDd
F Co C OhDv pC Co oCo Z Co pv oCr oD x lA
,DDFp Aok C .PvC k pq Fpv CoA lܿvF lGN v D
qC ܷ . kpF Co kh pv ܷ .kpF pv oC CpFC Co h kV vC
:l krh pF ...,Fkhpv qC , Ch khpv qC ,OvpJ kh qC ,khpv

D MkD F C

DrF N Cl C

NoDq pv C ܷ PDOvC pC . PvC ܷ pv Xd pv kpF kD qClDG
Gp DD DF OiA , PvC Dܷ qC Dh OdDv pv C .lzDF l ФDd
DFDF D lhpZkF oCk ok kp lo CpJ vZ
kp qC p:lDp lClh PvDWC qC.kq vpJ l F Cqv
eNCo PDOvCC ClOFC DN lzF lDF C , PvC HVC C pF Xd PD PDOvC
v qC DA d PvC k oOvk phA Xd k oOvk C qD . l
EDO C:kp khvo F lClh A pk 첵 O .PvClz okD lClh
vD X DصC .lV kDeNC DNC ldN kp F Mߵk Co
DkC CpJ CpOdC G ko oCorF C Piz PvC
() CpFC
Pdo Dok lClh D . Pw DeOC F p A CpD . PvC DvA
ok OzCk D qDF kߡ CpFC Co DCo pF h Dh ok Co h
DD lz C Clh Pdo mok lo DWClF PDOvC Hw Moߤ
...Dw Dd DCp Dk CpFC